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The nonstructural NSP4 protein of rotavirus has been described as the first viral enterotoxin. In this study we have examined the effect of NSP4 on polarized epithelial cells (MDCK-1) grown on permeable filters. Apical but not basolateral administration of NSP4 was found to cause a reduction in the transepithelial electrical resistance, redistribution of filamentous actin, and an increase in paracellular passage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran. Significant effects on transepithelial electrical resistance were noted after a 20- to 30-h incubation with 1 nmol of NSP4. Most surprisingly, the epithelium recovered its original integrity and electrical resistance upon removal of NSP4. Preincubation of nonconfluent MDCK-1 cells with NSP4 prevented not only development of a permeability barrier but also lateral targeting of the tight-junction-associated Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein. Taken together, these data indicate new and specific effects of NSP4 on tight-junction biogenesis and show a novel effect of NSP4 on polarized epithelia.  相似文献
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Isolated neutrophils from healthy donors were used for the isolation of four highly purified forms of myeloperoxidase as determined by spectral (A430/A280 ratio 0.80-0.87) and enzyme-activity measurements. Although the myeloperoxidases exhibited different elution profiles on cation-exchange chromatography, gel filtration indicated similar relative molecular masses. When these forms were assayed for peroxidase and peroxidase-oxidase activities with several substrates, they all exhibited virtually the same specific activities. These results suggest that possible functional differences between the enzymes may be related to differences in their sites of action rather than to differences in enzyme activity. Myeloperoxidase from a patient with chronic myeloid leukaemia also revealed a similar heterogeneity on cation-exchange chromatography. However, this myeloperoxidase contained in addition one form with a lower and one form with a higher relative molecular mass, as indicated by gel-filtration chromatography.  相似文献
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Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, grown in drop culture, produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in late growth phase. Production was almost completely inhibited when the fungal cultures were exposed to white light (180 W/m2), although mycelial dry weight was not significantly affected. The fungus was most sensitive to light during the exponential growth phase. Twelve hours of light exposure was sufficient to decrease significantly the production of the secondary metabolites. In light the fungus produced a red-brown pigment of unknown nature.  相似文献
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Thiols as myeloperoxidase-oxidase substrates.   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
Nine low-Mr thiols were compared with regard to their ability to function as myeloperoxidase-oxidase substrates under conditions where no auto-oxidation of the thiols could be observed. The methyl and ethyl esters of cysteine were found to be about twice as active as cysteamine at pH 7.0, in terms of increased O2 consumption. Cysteine itself was poorly active, whereas glutathione, N-acetylcysteine and penicillamine were completely inactive as myeloperoxidase-oxidase substrates under these conditions. The structure-activity relationships indicated that both a free thiol and free amino group were required for peroxidase-oxidase activity, and also that a free carboxy group abolished activity. In analogy with cysteamine, the activities of both cysteine esters were inhibited by superoxide dismutase (less than 5 micrograms/ml) and by catalase and not by the hydroxyl-radical scavenger mannitol. In contrast with cysteamine, the activities of both cysteine esters were stimulated more than 2-fold by high concentrations (greater than 5 micrograms/ml) of superoxide dismutase. The activities of both cysteine esters exhibited broad pH optima at pH 7. A mechanism for the myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of the cysteine esters is proposed, which is partly different from that previously proposed for cysteamine.  相似文献
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The human red-blood-cell glyoxalase system was modified by incubation with high concentrations of glucose in vitro. Red-blood-cell suspensions (50%, v/v) were incubated with 5 mM- and 25 mM-glucose to model normal and hyperglycaemic glucose metabolism. There was an increase in the flux of methylglyoxal metabolized to D-lactic acid via the glyoxalase pathway with high glucose concentration. The increase was approximately proportional to initial glucose concentration over the range studied (5-100 mM). The activities of glyoxalase I and glyoxalase II were not significantly changed, but the concentrations of the glyoxalase substrates, methylglyoxal and S-D-lactoylglutathione, and the percentage of glucotriose metabolized via the glyoxalase pathway, were significantly increased. The increase in the flux of intermediates metabolized via the glyoxalase pathway during periodic hyperglycaemia may be a biochemical factor involved in the development of chronic clinical complications associated with diabetes mellitus.  相似文献
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Myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine.   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
Cysteamine oxidation was shown to be catalysed by nanomolar concentrations of myeloperoxidase in a peroxidase-oxidase reaction, i.e. an O2-consuming oxidation of a compound catalysed by peroxidase without H2O2 addition. When auto-oxidation of the thiol was prevented by the metal-ion chelator diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid, native, but not heat-inactivated, myeloperoxidase induced changes in the u.v.-light-absorption spectrum of cysteamine. These changes were consistent with disulphide (cystamine) formation. Concomitantly, O2 was consumed and superoxide radical anion formation could be detected by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction. Both superoxide dismutase and catalase inhibited the reaction, whereas the hydroxyl-radical scavengers mannitol and ethanol did not. O2 consumption increased with increasing pH (between pH 6.0 and 8.0), and 50% inhibition was exhibited by about 3 mM-NaCl at pH 7.0 and by about 100 mM-NaCl at pH 8.0. Cysteamine was about 5 times as active (in terms of increased O2 consumption at pH 7.5) as the previously reported peroxidase-oxidase substrates NADPH, dihydroxyfumaric acid and indol-3-ylacetic acid. A possible reaction pathway for the myeloperoxidase-oxidase oxidation of cysteamine is discussed. These results indicate that cysteamine is a very useful substrate for studies on myeloperoxidase-oxidase activity.  相似文献
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VP4 is an unglycosylated protein of the outer layer of the capsid of rotavirus. It forms spikes that project from the outer layer of mature virions, which is mainly constituted by glycoprotein VP7. VP4 has been implicated in several important functions, such as cell attachment, penetration, hemagglutination, neutralization, virulence, and host range. Previous studies indicated that VP4 is located in the space between the periphery of the viroplasm and the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum in rotavirus-infected cells. Confocal microscopy of infected MA104 monolayers, immunostained with specific monoclonal antibodies, revealed that a significant fraction of VP4 was present at the plasma membrane early after infection. Another fraction of VP4 is cytoplasmic and colocalizes with beta-tubulin. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that at the early stage of viral infection, VP4 was present on the plasma membrane and that its N-terminal region, the VP8* subunit, was accessible to antibodies. Biotin labeling of the infected cell surface monolayer with a cell-impermeable reagent allowed the identification of the noncleaved form of VP4 that was associated with the glycoprotein VP7. The localization of VP4 was not modified in cells transfected with a plasmid allowing the expression of a fusion protein consisting of VP4 and the green fluorescent protein. The present data suggest that VP4 reaches the plasma membrane through the microtubule network and that other viral proteins are dispensable for its targeting and transport.  相似文献
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Screening of infants for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) using filter paper blood samples collected on the 5th day of life was performed with a radioimmunoassay for 17-hydroxyprogesterone without extraction with organic solvents. A total of 153,000 newborns were screened and 12 cases of CAH were detected (1:12,800). With recall levels related to gestational age, the recall rate could be lowered to 0.05%.  相似文献
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