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Removal of repeated sequences from hybridisation probes.   总被引:67,自引:22,他引:45       下载免费PDF全文
Pre-reassociation of human clone probes, containing dispersed highly repeated sequences, (e.g. Alu and KpnI families), with a large excess of sonicated total human DNA allows signal from single and low copy number components to be detected in transfer hybridisations. The signal from non-dispersed repeated sequences is reduced to single copy levels. The procedure, which is simple and quick, is illustrated using model combinations of well characterised cloned probes, and is applied to a sample of randomly chosen cosmid clones. A theoretical assessment is presented which may be useful to those wishing to use this procedure.  相似文献
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Long range periodicities in mouse satellite DNA.   总被引:66,自引:0,他引:66  
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Measurement of DNA length by gel electrophoresis   总被引:48,自引:0,他引:48  
Plotting fragment length against reciprocal of mobility gives a straight line over a wider range than the conventional semilogarithmic plot. Curvature can be removed by a simple correction. A method is also given for determining molecular weights from mobilities by direct calculation.  相似文献
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The idea that large DNA molecules adopt a stretched conformation as they pass through gels suggests a simple mechanism for the separation of DNA by crossed field electrophoresis: at each change in field direction a DNA molecule takes off in the new direction of the field by a movement which is led by what was formerly its back end. The effect of this ratcheting motion is to subtract from the DNA molecule's forward movement, at each step, an amount which is proportional to its length. We find that this model explains most of the features of the separation, and we describe experiments, using a novel electrophoresis apparatus, which support the model. The apparatus turns the gel between two preset orientations in a uniform electric field at preset time intervals. This separation method has the practical advantage over some others that the DNA molecules follow straight tracks. A further advantage is that the parameters which determine the separation are readily predicted from the simple theory describing their motion.  相似文献
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E M Southern  U Maskos  J K Elder 《Genomics》1992,13(4):1008-1017
An efficient method was developed for making complete sets of oligonucleotides of defined length, covalently attached to the surface of a glass plate, by synthesizing them in situ. A device carrying all octapurine sequences was used to explore factors affecting molecular hybridization of the tethered oligonucleotides, to develop computer-aided methods for analyzing the data, and to test the feasibility of using the method for sequence analysis. Further development is needed before the method can be used routinely, but our work shows that it has a number of potential advantages over gel-based methods: it should be easy to automate; the quality of the sequence results can be evaluated statistically; it provides a powerful way of comparing related sequences and detecting mutation; it can be applied to both DNA and RNA; and specific motifs can be incorporated into all sequences of the array to focus analysis on sequences of biological interest.  相似文献
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We have investigated the use of spacer molecules to reduce steric interference of the support on the hybridisation behaviour of immobilised oligonucleotides. These spacers are built up from a variety of monomeric units, using phosphoramidite chemistry, by condensation onto an amine-functionalised polypropylene support. The optimal spacer length was determined to be at least 40 atoms in length, giving up to 150-fold increase in the yield of hybridisation. The effects of different charged groups in the spacer were also examined, and it was shown that both positively and negatively charged groups in the spacer diminish the yield of hybridisation. Steric hindrance in hybridisation can also be a problem if the oligonucleotides attached to the support are too close to each other. Surface coverage was varied using a combination of cleavable and stable linkers, giving the highest hybridisation yields for surfaces containing approximately 50% of the maximum concentration of oligonucleotides.  相似文献
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Arrays of oligonucleotides corresponding to a full set of complements of a known sequence can be made in a single series of base couplings in which each base in the complement is added in turn. Coupling is carried out on the surface of a solid support such as a glass plate, using a device which applies reagents in a defined area. The device is displaced by a fixed movement after each coupling reaction so that consecutive couplings overlap only a portion of previous ones. The shape and size of the device and the amount by which it is displaced at each step determines the length of the oligonucleotides. Certain shapes create arrays of oligonucleotides from mononucleotides up to a given length in a single series of couplings. The array is used in a hybridisation reaction to a labelled target sequence, and shows the hybridisation behaviour of every oligonucleotide in the target sequence with its complement in the array. Applications include sequence comparison to test for mutation, analysis of secondary structure, and optimisation of PCR primer and antisense oligonucleotide design.  相似文献
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