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Removal of repeated sequences from hybridisation probes.   总被引:67,自引:22,他引:45       下载免费PDF全文
Pre-reassociation of human clone probes, containing dispersed highly repeated sequences, (e.g. Alu and KpnI families), with a large excess of sonicated total human DNA allows signal from single and low copy number components to be detected in transfer hybridisations. The signal from non-dispersed repeated sequences is reduced to single copy levels. The procedure, which is simple and quick, is illustrated using model combinations of well characterised cloned probes, and is applied to a sample of randomly chosen cosmid clones. A theoretical assessment is presented which may be useful to those wishing to use this procedure.  相似文献
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The idea that large DNA molecules adopt a stretched conformation as they pass through gels suggests a simple mechanism for the separation of DNA by crossed field electrophoresis: at each change in field direction a DNA molecule takes off in the new direction of the field by a movement which is led by what was formerly its back end. The effect of this ratcheting motion is to subtract from the DNA molecule's forward movement, at each step, an amount which is proportional to its length. We find that this model explains most of the features of the separation, and we describe experiments, using a novel electrophoresis apparatus, which support the model. The apparatus turns the gel between two preset orientations in a uniform electric field at preset time intervals. This separation method has the practical advantage over some others that the DNA molecules follow straight tracks. A further advantage is that the parameters which determine the separation are readily predicted from the simple theory describing their motion.  相似文献
4.
E M Southern  U Maskos  J K Elder 《Genomics》1992,13(4):1008-1017
An efficient method was developed for making complete sets of oligonucleotides of defined length, covalently attached to the surface of a glass plate, by synthesizing them in situ. A device carrying all octapurine sequences was used to explore factors affecting molecular hybridization of the tethered oligonucleotides, to develop computer-aided methods for analyzing the data, and to test the feasibility of using the method for sequence analysis. Further development is needed before the method can be used routinely, but our work shows that it has a number of potential advantages over gel-based methods: it should be easy to automate; the quality of the sequence results can be evaluated statistically; it provides a powerful way of comparing related sequences and detecting mutation; it can be applied to both DNA and RNA; and specific motifs can be incorporated into all sequences of the array to focus analysis on sequences of biological interest.  相似文献
5.
We have investigated the use of spacer molecules to reduce steric interference of the support on the hybridisation behaviour of immobilised oligonucleotides. These spacers are built up from a variety of monomeric units, using phosphoramidite chemistry, by condensation onto an amine-functionalised polypropylene support. The optimal spacer length was determined to be at least 40 atoms in length, giving up to 150-fold increase in the yield of hybridisation. The effects of different charged groups in the spacer were also examined, and it was shown that both positively and negatively charged groups in the spacer diminish the yield of hybridisation. Steric hindrance in hybridisation can also be a problem if the oligonucleotides attached to the support are too close to each other. Surface coverage was varied using a combination of cleavable and stable linkers, giving the highest hybridisation yields for surfaces containing approximately 50% of the maximum concentration of oligonucleotides.  相似文献
6.
Arrays of oligonucleotides corresponding to a full set of complements of a known sequence can be made in a single series of base couplings in which each base in the complement is added in turn. Coupling is carried out on the surface of a solid support such as a glass plate, using a device which applies reagents in a defined area. The device is displaced by a fixed movement after each coupling reaction so that consecutive couplings overlap only a portion of previous ones. The shape and size of the device and the amount by which it is displaced at each step determines the length of the oligonucleotides. Certain shapes create arrays of oligonucleotides from mononucleotides up to a given length in a single series of couplings. The array is used in a hybridisation reaction to a labelled target sequence, and shows the hybridisation behaviour of every oligonucleotide in the target sequence with its complement in the array. Applications include sequence comparison to test for mutation, analysis of secondary structure, and optimisation of PCR primer and antisense oligonucleotide design.  相似文献
7.
Heterogeneity of the ribosomal genes in mice and men   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
N Arnheim  E M Southern 《Cell》1977,11(2):363-370
The structures of mouse and human ribosomal DNA were studied using the restriction enzymes Eco R1 and Hind III. Individual mice or humans showed a heterogeneous pattern of restriction fragments resulting from differences in the non-transcribed spacer DNA. Six individual mice from the inbred strain CBA/H-T6 had identical patterns. The same pattern was shown by another CBA strain and by C3H. These strains were originally derived from a BALB X DBA cross made in 1920. Different patterns were found for BALB/c, C57BL and Mus poschiavinus. Cultured cells derived from C3H mice (L cells) showed a pattern quantitatively different from that of the parent strain, but two myeloma cell lines derived from BALB/c showed the same pattern as BALB/c mice. Ribosomal DNA in man is also heterogeneous. Differences were observed between human DNAs in the amounts of the different spacer classes. Studies on mouse-human cell hybrids suggest that some spacer classes are present on more than one of the five human nucleolus organizers.  相似文献
8.
In this paper we describe a modification to the lambda vector EMBL3 which greatly expedites the construction of restriction maps of cloned DNA sequences. In the modified vector, EMBL3cos, all the phage coding sequences are placed to the right of the cloning sites so that the left cohesive end is separated by only 200bp, rather than 20kb (as in conventional lambda vectors), from the inserted DNA fragment. We show that reliable restriction maps can be rapidly constructed from partial digests of clones made in this vector by labelling the left cohesive end with a complementary 32P-labelled oligonucleotide. In addition, we quantify the restriction of clones containing human DNA by the McrA and McrB systems of E. coli and show that the use of Mcr- plating strains can increase the yield of recombinant phage up to tenfold, to give cloning efficiencies of greater than or equal to 10(7) pfu/microgram of human DNA.  相似文献
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10.
We have developed a large format digital scanner for several applications in nucleic acid analysis. Here we describe the scanning of autoradiographs of DNA sequencing gels and a set of programs for reading the base sequence. The programs correct distortions in the gel, recognize bands by their characteristic shape and assign bases to bands by weighting band position and intensity. The sequence read in this way is as accurate as that read by an expert.  相似文献
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