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1.
An Arabidopsisprotoplast system was developed for dissecting plant cell death in individual cells. Bax, a mammalian pro-apoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, induces apoptotic-like cell death in Arabidopsis. Bax accumulation in Arabidopsismesophyll protoplasts expressing murine BaxcDNA from a glucocorticoid-inducible promoter results in cytological characteristics of apoptosis, namely DNA fragmentation, increased vacuolation, and loss of plasma membrane integrity. In vivotargeting analysis monitored using jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter indicated full-length Bax was localized to the mitochondria, as it does in animal cells. Deletion of the carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domain of Bax completely abolished targeting to mitochondria. Bax expression was followed by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Treatment of protoplasts with the antioxidant N-acetyl- -cysteine (NAC) during induction of Bax expression strongly suppressed Bax-mediated ROS production and the cell death phenotype. However, some population of the ROS depleted cells still induced cell death, indicating that there is a process that Bax-mediated plant cell death is independent of ROS accumulation. Accordingly, suppression of Bax-mediated plant cell death also takes place in two different processes. Over-expression of a key redox-regulator, Arabidopsisnucleoside diphosphate kinase 2 (AtNDPK2) down-regulated ROS accumulation and suppressed Bax-mediated cell death and transient expression of ArabidopsisBax inhibitor-1 (AtBI-1) substantially suppressed Bax-induced cell death without altering cellular ROS level. Taken together, our results collectively suggest that the Bax-mediated cell death and its suppression in plants is mediated by ROS-dependent and -independent processes.  相似文献
2.
A full-length cDNA of the OgPAE1 gene encoding the alpha5 subunit of the 20S proteasome was isolated from wild rice (Oryza grandiglumis) treated by wounding or with a fungal elicitor. The deduced amino acid sequence of OgPAE1 comprises 237 amino acids (25.99 kDa), and shows 94.5% homology with Arabidopsis thaliana AtPAE1. Expression of OgPAE1 is regulated by defense-related signaling chemicals such as cantharidin, endothall and jasmonic acid. Overexpression of OgPAE1 in A. thaliana leads to resistance to the fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea by lowering disease rate and size of necrotic lesions, and by less penetration and colonization of fungal hyphae. The results indicate that the 20S proteasome from wild rice is involved in the B. cinerea defense pathway via an as yet undetermined mechanism.  相似文献
3.
We cloned the gene, CdPAL1, from Cistanche deserticola callus using RACE PCR with degenerate primers that were designed based on a multiple sequence alignment of known PAL genes from other plant species. The gene shows high homology to other known PAL genes registered in GenBank. The recombinant protein exhibited MichaelisMenten kinetics with a K m of 0.1013 mM, V max of 4.858 μmol min−1, K cat of 3.36 S−1, and K cat/K m is 33,168 M−1 S−1. The enzyme had an optimal pH of 8.5 and an activation energy of 38.92 kJ mol−1 when l-Phenylalanine was used as a substrate; l-tyrosine cannot be used as substrate for this protein. The optimal temperature was 55°C, and the thermal stability results showed that, after a treatment at 70°C for 20 min, the protein retained 87% activity, while a treatment at 75°C for 20 min resulted in a loss of over 85% of the enzyme activity. Treatment with heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, and Zn2+) showed remarkable inhibitory effects. Among the intermediates from the lignin (cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamyl aldehyde, coniferyl aldehyde, coniferyl alcohol), phenylpropanoid (cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, caffeic acid, and chlorogenic acid) and phenylethanoid (tyrosol and salidroside) biosynthetic pathways, only cinnamic acid showed strong inhibitory effects against CdPAL1 activity with a K i of 8 μM. Competitive inhibitor AIP exhibited potent inhibition with K i = 0.056 μM.  相似文献
4.
Flow cytometric analysis was systematically performed to optimize the concentration and duration of hydroxyurea (DNA synthesis inhibitor) and trifluralin (metaphase blocking reagent) treatments for synchronizing the cell cycle and accumulating metaphase chromosomes in barley root tips. A high metaphase index (76.5% in the root tip meristematic area) was routinely achieved. Seedlings of about 1.0-cm length were treated with 1.25 mM hydroxyurea for 14 h to synchronize the root tip meristem cells at the S/G2 phase. After rinsing with hydroxyurea, the seedlings were incubated in a hydroxyurea-free solution for 2 h and were treated with 1 M trifluralin for 4 h to accumulate mitotic cells in the metaphase. The consistent high metaphase index depended on the uniform germination of seeds prior to treatment. High-quality and high-quantity isolated metaphase chromosomes were suitable for flow cytometric analysis and sorting. Flow karyotypes of barley chromosomes were established via univariate and bivariate analysis. A variation of flow karyotypes was detected among barley lines. Two single chromosome types were identified and sorted. Bivariate analysis showed no variation among barley individual chromosomes in AT and GC content.  相似文献
5.
Flow cytometric analysis was systematically performed to optimize the concentration and duration of hydroxyurea (DNA synthesis inhibitor) and trifluralin (metaphase blocking reagent) treatments for synchronizing the cell cycle and accumulating metaphase chromosomes in barley root tips. A high metaphase index (76.5% in the root tip meristematic area) was routinely achieved. Seedlings of about 1.0-cm length were treated with 1.25 mM hydroxyurea for 14 h to synchronize the root tip meristem cells at the S/G2 phase. After rinsing with hydroxyurea, the seedlings were incubated in a hydroxyurea-free solution for 2 h and were treated with 1 microM trifluralin for 4 h to accumulate mitotic cells in the metaphase. The consistent high metaphase index depended on the uniform germination of seeds prior to treatment. High-quality and high-quantity isolated metaphase chromosomes were suitable for flow cytometric analysis and sorting. Flow karyotypes of barley chromosomes were established via univariate and bivariate analysis. A variation of flow karyotypes was detected among barley lines. Two single chromosome types were identified and sorted. Bivariate analysis showed no variation among barley individual chromosomes in AT and GC content.  相似文献
6.
We identified rice genes that might be involved in drought stress tolerance by virtue of their anti-apoptotic activity. Potential anti-apoptosis related genes were identified by screening an Oryza sativa cDNA library derived from drought stressed tissues in a yeast functional assay. About 28 O. sativa cDNAs promoted yeast survival following engagement of Bax-induced apoptosis. An O. sativa cDNA encoding R12H780 was a highly conserved putative senescence-associated-protein (OsSAP). OsSAP was both highly and rapidly expressed in response to drought stress. Additionally, OsSAP was found to be localized to the mitochondria. Overall, OsSAP represents a new type of Bax suppressor related gene and endows multiple stress tolerance in yeast.  相似文献
7.
Recent studies have shown that an intron is not merely “junk”, but something that plays important roles in many biological processes such as gene expression regulation and alternative splicing. For purposes of studying intron structures and predicting consensus splice motifs, a total of 102 legume species were used to isolate introns across the family. Of 196 gene-targeted PCR primer pairs, we successfully amplified 118 intron-containing genes (60.2 %) and obtained a total of 1,870 introns with an average size of 143 nucleotides, ranging from 61 to 1,036. Species-based compilation of 5′- and 3′-splicing motifs showed, to some extent, lineage-specific conservation in each splicing motif. Compilation of the entire intron set permitted prediction of the consensus sequences of splicing signal motifs in legumes, AYGW GTABABGH and TVNC/TAGGHTV for the 5′SS and 3′SS, respectively. Interestingly, these consensus motifs are very similar to the corresponding genome-wide splicing signals of two model systems, Arabidopsis and rice. This result suggests conservation of pre-mRNA splicing mechanism occurring in higher plants. Multiple alignments of CALTL introns demonstrated that the BP-3′SS region was relatively more conserved than the 5′SS-BP region. We speculate that length of the BP-3′SS region needs to be retained for the interaction with U2AF protein. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that each of three splicing motifs is not only phylogenetically informative, but also relevant to evolutionary divergence of species. This result suggests that the splice signal sequences would be a useful tool for the molecular phylogenetic analysis. We also anticipate that gene-targeted amplification in multiple genomes, described in this study, would facilitate studies on intron-located functional elements involved in gene expression regulations.  相似文献
8.
9.
Hu GS  Hur YJ  Jia JM  Lee JH  Chung YS  Yi YB  Yun DJ  Park SK  Kim DH 《Plant cell reports》2011,30(4):665-674
2-Aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), a specific competitive phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) inhibitor was applied to a suspension cell culture of Cistanche deserticola. The effects of AIP treatment on cell growth, PAL activity, contents and yields of total phenolic compound, salidroside and four phenylethanoid glycosides (PheGs) are investigated. The results demonstrated that, 0.5 and 2.0 μM AIP treatments had similar effects on the measurements investigated in this study. AIP treatment resulted in significant decreases in PAL activity, total phenolic compounds content, and PheGs content. Linear regression analysis showed that PAL activity had a high correlation coefficient with the total phenolic compound content and the four PheGs contents. Total PAL activity-time area under curve (AUC) had a high correlation coefficient with the total phenolic compound yield and the yields of five tested compounds in untreated cell samples. In AIP-treated cells, total PAL activity-time AUC retained a high correlation with the total phenolic compound yield and the yields of three tested compounds, echinacoside, acteoside, and tubuloside A, but not salidroside and cistanoside A. The difference could be caused by the different biosynthetic origins of each of the tested compounds. These results demonstrate the important role of PAL in the biosynthesis of PheGs in the suspension cell culture of C. deserticola.  相似文献
10.
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