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A detailed understanding of the population dynamics of many amphibian species is lacking despite concerns about declining amphibian biodiversity and abundance. This paper explores temporal patterns of occupancy and underlying extinction and colonization dynamics in a regionally imperiled amphibian species, the Northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) in Alberta. Our study contributes to elucidating regional occupancy dynamics at northern latitudes, where climate extremes likely have a profound effect on seasonal occupancy. The primary advantage of our study is its wide geographic scale (60,000 km2) and the use of repeat visual surveys each spring and summer from 2009–2013. We find that occupancy varied more dramatically between seasons than years, with low spring and higher summer occupancy. Between spring and summer, colonization was high and extinction low; inversely, colonization was low and extinction high over the winter. The dynamics of extinction and colonization are complex, making conservation management challenging. Our results reveal that Northern leopard frog occupancy was constant over the last five years and thus there is no evidence of decline or recovery within our study area. Changes to equilibrium occupancy are most sensitive to increasing colonization in the spring or declining extinction in the summer. Therefore, conservation and management efforts should target actions that are likely to increase spring colonization; this could be achieved through translocations or improving the quality or access to breeding habitat. Because summer occupancy is already high, it may be difficult to improve further. Nevertheless, summer extinction could be reduced by predator control, increasing water quality or hydroperiod of wetlands, or increasing the quality or quantity of summer habitat.  相似文献
2.
Given climate change, species' climatically suitable habitats are increasingly expected to shift poleward. Some imperilled populations towards the poleward edge of their species' range might therefore conceivably benefit from climate change. Interactions between climate and population dynamics may be complex, however, with climate exerting effects both indirectly via influence over food availability and more directly, via effects on physiology and its implications for survival and reproduction. A thorough understanding of these interactions is critical for effective conservation management. We therefore examine the relationship between climate, survival and reproduction in Canadian black‐tailed prairie dogs, a threatened keystone species in an imperilled ecosystem at the northern edge of the species' range. Our analyses considered 8 years of annual mark–recapture data (2007–2014) in relation to growing degree days, precipitation, drought status and winter severity, as well as year, sex, age and body mass. Survival was strongly influenced by the interaction of drought and body mass class, and winter temperature severity. Female reproductive status was associated with the interaction of growing degree days and growing season precipitation, with spring precipitation and with winter temperature severity. Results related to body mass suggested that climatic variables exerted their effects via regulation of food availability with potential linked effects of food quality, immunological and behavioural implications, and predation risk. Predictions of future increases in drought conditions in North America's grassland ecosystems have raised concerns for the outlook of Canadian black‐tailed prairie dogs. Insights gained from the analyses, however, point to mitigating species management options targeted at decoupling the mechanisms by which climate exerts its negative influence. Our approach highlights the importance of understanding the interaction between climate and population dynamics in peripheral populations whose viability might ultimately determine their species' ability to track climatically suitable space.  相似文献
3.
ABSTRACT

The presence of bat species is commonly determined by placing acoustic bat detectors that record bat echolocation calls in the habitat they are likely to use. Detection rates are affected by variables including type of detection unit used. We compared detection rates of long-tailed bat (Chalinolobus tuberculatus) echolocation calls between two types of automated bat detectors: Wildlife Acoustics SMZC Zero Crossing Bat Recorders (ZC), and Frequency Compression Automated Bat Monitoring units (FC) produced by New Zealand’s Department of Conservation. Units were placed in locations where bats were known to be present, but not all detected bats. The median number of bat passes recorded by FC units over 10 nights was 20 compared with a median of 3 bat passes for ZC units. ZC units also detected bats over significantly fewer nights than FC units. These results suggest FC units are more sensitive and therefore better to use where long-tailed bats are expected to be at low abundance or only present infrequently. Because of inconsistencies in detection rates, we recommend the use of only one model of the detector within a monitoring project. Our data also suggests that surveys should take place over long periods to maximise likelihood of detecting bats, if present.  相似文献
4.
Abstract

Many bird species endemic to alpine New Zealand are now at critically low densities and restricted in range, making predator‐prey research difficult. We used artificial nests in the Borland Valley, Fiordland National Park, to investigate (1) which introduced species is the most frequent nest predator in the two habitats, (2) whether nest survival differs between habitats, and (3) the utility of artificial nests for guiding conservation management. We used different types of artificial nest in 2 different years and undertook a calibration study of the two types. In 2003, survival of artificial nests containing wax eggs and chicken eggs was high in both habitats. In 2004, survival of artificial nests containing plastilina eggs and chicken eggs was low in both habitats, but was higher in alpine grassland compared with beech forest. Stoats and possums were the most frequent predators (36 and 22% respectively of artificial plastilina nests in alpine grassland and high‐altitude beech forest combined); these percentages did not vary significantly between habitats. Given the low density and sparse distribution of vulnerable species in much of New Zealand, data from artificial nests can be a useful tool for studying predation in these remote and difficult habitats, or at least, preferable to ignorance. However, the type of artificial nest used can strongly affect the rate at which they are destroyed.  相似文献
5.
Abstract

Ship rats exhibit large increases in abundance (irruptions) following heavy beech seedfall in New Zealand's Nothofagus forests. Predation by rats at high density severely damages native fauna populations. In 2006 the Department of Conservation undertook a management experiment in the Eg‐linton Valley to see if they could protect endangered species during a rat irruption. Poison (0.15% 1080, followed by 0.0375% coumatetralyl, or Racumin®) was laid in bait stations, and the consequences for rat abundance and survival were estimated. All 10 radio‐tagged rats died, suggesting that 1080 had a high impact on the rat population. The two rats that made the smallest daily movements survived longer than the others. Live trapping documented a reduced abundance of rats within the poison area (450 ha) after 1 month of poisoning. However, after 4 months of poisoning, the abundance of rats had begun to recover. Further investigation is needed on acceptance of Racumin® to rats, optimum spacing of bait stations for rats, and bait competition between rats and mice when densities of both species are high.  相似文献
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