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Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: concepts and definitions   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Abstract.  Much confusion exists in the English-language literature on plant invasions concerning the terms 'naturalized' and 'invasive' and their associated concepts. Several authors have used these terms in proposing schemes for conceptualizing the sequence of events from introduction to invasion, but often imprecisely, erroneously or in contradictory ways. This greatly complicates the formulation of robust generalizations in invasion ecology.
Based on an extensive and critical survey of the literature we defined a minimum set of key terms related to a graphic scheme which conceptualizes the naturalization/invasion process. Introduction means that the plant (or its propagule) has been transported by humans across a major geographical barrier. Naturalization starts when abiotic and biotic barriers to survival are surmounted and when various barriers to regular reproduction are overcome. Invasion further requires that introduced plants produce reproductive offspring in areas distant from sites of introduction (approximate scales: > 100 m over < 50 years for taxa spreading by seeds and other propagules; > 6 m/3 years for taxa spreading by roots, rhizomes, stolons or creeping stems). Taxa that can cope with the abiotic environment and biota in the general area may invade disturbed, seminatural communities. Invasion of successionally mature, undisturbed communities usually requires that the alien taxon overcomes a different category of barriers.
We propose that the term 'invasive' should be used without any inference to environmental or economic impact. Terms like 'pests' and 'weeds' are suitable labels for the 50–80% of invaders that have harmful effects. About 10% of invasive plants that change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems over substantial areas may be termed 'transformers'.  相似文献
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The biogeography of naturalization in alien plants   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
Aim  This paper reviews the main geographical determinants of naturalization in plants.
Location  Global.
Methods  Comparative studies of large data sets of alien floras are the main source of information on global patterns of naturalization.
Results  Temperate mainland regions are more invaded than tropical mainland regions but there seems to be no difference in invasibility of temperate and tropical islands. Islands are more invaded than the mainland. The number of naturalized species in temperate regions decreases with latitude and their geographical ranges increase with latitude. The number of naturalized species on islands increases with temperature. Naturalized species contribute to floristic homogenization, but the phenomenon is scale-dependent.
Main conclusions  Some robust patterns are evident from currently available data, but further research is needed on several aspects to advance our understanding of the biogeography of naturalization of alien plants. For example, measures of propagule pressure are needed to determine the invasibility of communities/ecosystems/regions. The patterns discussed in this paper are derived largely from numbers and proportions of naturalized species, and little is known about the proportion of introduced species that become naturalized. Further insights on naturalization rates, i.e. the proportion of aliens that successfully naturalize within regions, and on geographical and other determinants of its variation would provide us with better understanding of the invasion process. Comparative studies, and resulting generalizations, are almost exclusively based on numbers of species, but alien species differ in their impact on native biodiversity and ecosystem processes.  相似文献
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We explore the issues relevant to those types of ecosystems containing new combinations of species that arise through human action, environmental change, and the impacts of the deliberate and inadvertent introduction of species from other regions. Novel ecosystems (also termed 'emerging ecosystems') result when species occur in combinations and relative abundances that have not occurred previously within a given biome. Key characteristics are novelty, in the form of new species combinations and the potential for changes in ecosystem functioning, and human agency, in that these ecosystems are the result of deliberate or inadvertent human action. As more of the Earth becomes transformed by human actions, novel ecosystems increase in importance, but are relatively little studied. Either the degradation or invasion of native or 'wild' ecosystems or the abandonment of intensively managed systems can result in the formation of these novel systems. Important considerations are whether these new systems are persistent and what values they may have. It is likely that it may be very difficult or costly to return such systems to their previous state, and hence consideration needs to be given to developing appropriate management goals and approaches.  相似文献
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