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Lizards of the family Eublepharidae exhibit interspecific diversity in body size, sexual size dimorphism (SSD), head size dimorphism (HSD), occurrence of male combat, and presence of male precloacal pores. Hence, they offer an opportunity for testing hypotheses for the evolution and maintenance of sexual dimorphism. Historical analysis of male agonistic behaviour indicates that territoriality is ancestral in eublepharid geckos. Within Eublepharidae, male combat disappeared twice. In keeping with predictions from sexual selection theory, both events were associated with parallel loss of male-biased HSD and ventral scent glands. Eublepharids therefore provide new evidence that male-biased dimorphic heads are weapons used in aggressive encounters and that the ventral glands probably function in territory marking rather than in intersexual communication. Male-biased SSD is a plesiomorphic characteristic and was affected by at least three inversions. Shifts in SSD and male combat were not historically correlated. Therefore, other factors than male rivalry appear responsible for SSD inversions. Eublepharids demonstrate the full scope of Rensch's rule (small species tend to be female-larger, larger species male-larger). Most plausibly, SSD pattern hence seems to reflect body size variation. © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2002, 76 , 303–314.  相似文献
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We studied morphological variation among western Palaearctic species of woodmice (genusApodemus). Twenty one dental and skull variables were measured and evaluated using multivariate statistical approaches. A total of 501 specimens of the following 9 species of wood mice were examined:A. hermonensis, A. hyrcanicus, A. uralensis (=microps),A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. epimelas, A. mystacinus, A. peninsulae, A. agrarius. Species occupying large geographic areas were represented by two or three geographically distant populations. The analyses, based both on original and size adjusted data, revealed congruence between morphological evolution and phylogenetic relationships.  相似文献
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Different habitat preferences in animals have been interpreted mostly as a result of different adaptive design of the species and/or as a result of interspecific competition. We propose an alternative view of evolution of habitat preferences. Our model is based on progressive stochastic acquisition of cognitive clues discriminating habitat features which correlate with expected fitness. We assume that acquisition of each cognitive clue allowing discrimination of ‘better’ and ‘worse’ habitats (according to the average fitness in each habitat) will constrain further evolution, because each further clue will discriminate habitats only within previously acquired preferences. Simple simulation model shows that if it is the case, even the species with equal habitat-related fitness differences will rapidly diversify in their habitat preferences. Therefore, similarly as in the evolution of other species-specific traits, the evolution of animal–habitat relationship may be strongly affected by stochastic events and historical contingency. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
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Within a single clutch, smaller species of ectotherms generally lay a smaller number of relatively larger eggs than do larger species. Many hypotheses explaining both the interspecific negative allometry in egg size and egg size–number trade-off postulate the existence of an upper limit to the egg size of larger species. Specifically, in lizards, large eggs of large species could have too long a duration of incubation, or they could be too large to pass through the pelvic opening, which is presumably constrained mechanically in larger species. Alternatively, negative allometry could be a result of limits affecting eggs of smaller species. Under the latter concept, hatchling size in smaller species may be close to the lower limit imposed by ecological interactions or physiological processes, and therefore smaller species have to invest in relatively larger offspring. Contrary to these lower limit hypotheses, explanations based on the existence of an upper limit always predict negative egg-size allometry even in animals with invariant clutch size, in which naturally there is no egg size–number trade-off. We studied egg-size allometry in lizards of the family Eublepharidae, a monophyletic group of primitive geckos with large variance in body size and an invariant number of two eggs per clutch. We found an isometric relationship between egg and female size that does not support the upper limit hypotheses.  © 2006 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2006, 88 , 527–532.  相似文献
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Rensch’s rule describes the pattern of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) claiming that in taxa where males are the larger sex, larger species generally exhibit higher male to female body size ratios. Agreement with Rensch’s rule is manifested by the slope of the allometric relationship between male and female body size exceeding one. In this paper we have tested the hypothesis that recent rapid evolutionary changes of body size accompanying domestication process and morphological radiation of domestic breeds follow Rensch’s rule. We have analyzed literature data on adult body size of males and females in domestic cows, yaks, buffaloes and other bovines (315, 12, 24 and 2 breeds, respectively) and compared it with SSD in 18 wild species/subspecies of the subfamily Bovinae. Male to female body mass ratio in domestic cows (1.48) was fairly comparable to that found in other species of domestic and wild bovines except domestic buffaloes (1.19). In cows we have demonstrated clear positive allometry of male to female body mass ratio (slope 1.21) predicted by Rensch’s rule, however, no such clear relationship was found when body mass was replaced by shoulder height. These findings are in agreement with those we have previously reported in other livestock species, goats and sheep.  相似文献
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Paridae are among the bird families benefiting from food storing. However, not all its members hoard food. Our objective was to clarify the role of ecological factors in occurrence of food storing. We reviewed the data on major ecological characteristics of the Paridae species and analysed their association with the presence/absence of food storing. Our statistical model revealed that geography (distribution in North America) and taxonomy (genus Poecile) are better predictors of food storing than any of the studied ecological traits. Nevertheless, food-storing Poecile species inhabit mixed or coniferous woodlands with seasonal richness of food, while non-storing species tend to prefer edge and open habitats, where alternative food sources are available. Sociality and territoriality outside breeding season coincides with food storing. The analysis performed within the BaeolophusLophophanesPeriparusPoecile clade with ancestral food storing revealed no factor except continental climate that would explain the persistence of food storing. The phylogenetic analysis of ancestral states of the studied characters allowed us to propose a possible scenario for the emergence of food storing in Paridae. (1) Food storing is not ancestral in Paridae and appeared only once in the common ancestor of the BaeolophusLophophanesPeriparusPoecile group. (2) According to estimation of molecular clock in Paridae, food storing appeared before their radiation in North America.  相似文献
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We studied female preferences for familiar and unfamiliar males. The subjects were laboratory-born house mice: (1) non-commensal Mus musculus domesticus from the eastern part of Syria along the Euphrates River; and (2) commensal M. m. musculus from the Czech Republic. Pair-choice preference tests have revealed that oestrous females of both populations sniffed towards unfamiliar males more than familiar males. In the case of females exhibiting postpartum oestrus, this preference was less pronounced and statistically not significant. Thus, our mice clearly exhibited the behavioural pattern known from commensal populations of polygynous and/or promiscuous M. m. domesticus. We found no inverse tendency to seek proximity to the familiar male that has been previously reported from closely related and presumably monogamous aboriginal mouse Mus spicilegus. We conclude that neither commensal M. m. musculus, nor non-commensal M. m. domesticus, are likely to share a monogamous mating system with mound-building mice.  相似文献
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