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The use of Gram-positive bacteria for heterologous protein production proves to be a useful choice due to easy protein secretion and purification. The lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis emerges as an attractive alternative to the Gram-positive model Bacillus subtilis. Here, we review recent work on the expression and secretion systems available for heterologous protein secretion in L. lactis, including promoters, signal peptides and mutant host strains known to overcome some bottlenecks of the process. Among the tools developed in our laboratory, inactivation of HtrA, the unique housekeeping protease at the cell surface, or complementation of the Sec machinery with B. subtilis SecDF accessory protein each result in the increase in heterologous protein yield. Furthermore, our lactococcal expression/secretion system, using both P(Zn)zitR, an expression cassette tightly controlled by environmental zinc, and a consensus signal peptide, SP(Exp4), allows efficient production and secretion of the staphylococcal nuclease, as evidenced by protein yields (protein amount/biomass) comparable to those obtained using NICE or P170 expression systems under similar laboratory conditions. Finally, the toolbox we are developing should contribute to enlarge the use of L. lactis as a protein cell factory.  相似文献
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Kdn (3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid), a unique deaminated member of the sialic acid family, has emerged as a new building block of glycoconjugates from a wide variety of organisms, ranging from bacteria to mammals. In particular, the presence of Kdn has been demonstrated in different rat organs and tissues, but not in liver. Here we report on the detection and quantitation of Kdn in rat liver and on its variations with postnatal development and aging. We have previously established the optimal conditions for derivatization of Kdn with 1,2-diamino-4, 5-methylene-dioxybenzene (DMB), and detection by reverse-phase HPLC. Analysis of whole liver homogenates and different subcellular fractions reveals that Kdn is fundamentally present in the cytosolic fraction as nucleotide precursor. The expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac changes unevenly with age. While the content of Neu5Ac, the major species, and Neu5Gc decreases to a different extent from newborn to old animals, Kdn content decreases from newborn to trace amounts in adult rats and increases again with aging. Thus, expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac appears to be independently regulated.  相似文献
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A hallmark of oligosaccharides is their often limited spatial flexibility, allowing them to access a distinct set of conformers in solution. Viewing each individual or even the complete ensemble of conformations as potential binding partner(s) for lectins in protein-carbohydrate interactions, it is pertinent to address the question on the characteristics of bound state conformation(s) in solution. Also, it is possible that entering the lectin's binding site distorts the low-energy topology of a glycosidic linkage. As a step to delineate the strategy of ligand selection for galactosides, a common physiological docking point, we have performed a NMR study on two non-homologous lectins showing identical monosaccharide specificity. Thus, the conformation of lactose analogues bound to bovine heart galectin-1 and to mistletoe lectin in solution has been determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect measurements. It is demonstrated that the lectins select the syn conformation of lactose and various structural analogues (Galbeta(1-->4)Xyl, Galbeta(1-->3)Xyl, Galbeta(1-->2)Xyl, and Galbeta(1-->3)Glc) from the ensemble of presented conformations. No evidence for conformational distortion was obtained. Docking of the analogues to the modeled binding sites furnishes explanations, in structural terms, for exclusive recognition of the syn conformer despite the non-homologous design of the binding sites.  相似文献
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Feather mites (Astigmata) are distributed around the world, living on the feathers of birds, but their mechanisms for transmission among hosts are not fully understood. There is anecdotal evidence of feather mites attached to louseflies (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), suggesting that feather mites may use these flies as a mode of phoretic transmission among birds. Two bird-lousefly associations (alpine swift Apus melba-Crataerina melbae and feral pigeon Columba livia-Pseudolynchia canariensis) were inspected to test the hypothesis that feather mites use hippoboscid flies as major mode of transmission. Both bird species showed a high prevalence and abundance of feather mites and louseflies. However, no feather mites were found attached to the 405 louseflies inspected, although skin mites (Epidermoptidae and Cheyletiellidae) were found on louseflies collected from feral pigeons. This study suggests that feather mites do not use hippoboscid flies as a major mode of transmission among birds.  相似文献
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The 2-, 3-, 6-, 2'-, 3'-, 4'-, and 6'-deoxy derivatives and the 3-O-methyl derivative of methyl beta-lactoside have been synthesised and their binding to the galactose-specific agglutinin from Ricinus communis (RCA-120) has been investigated. The results indicate that HO-3,4,6 of the beta-D-galactopyranose moiety are the key polar groups. The main difference from the closely related ricin lectin RCA-60 involves HO-6 of the D-glucopyranose moiety, which seems to contribute to the binding of the carbohydrate to RCA-60 but not to RCA-120.  相似文献
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An unbiased cDNA expression phage library derived from bone-marrow endothelial cells was used to identify novel surface adhesion molecules that might participate in metastasis. Herein we report that reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1) is a cell surface-associated protein on both endothelial (EC) and prostate cancer (PCa) cell lines. RCN1 is an H/KDEL protein with six EF-hand, calcium-binding motifs, found in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our data indicate that RCN1 also is expressed on the cell surface of several endothelial cell lines, including human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMVECs), bone marrow endothelial cells (BMEC), and transformed human bone marrow endothelial cells (TrHBMEC). While RCN1 protein levels were highest in lysates from HDMVEC, this difference was not statistically significant compared BMEC and TrHBMEC. Given preferential adhesion of PCa to bone-marrow EC, these data suggest that RCN1 is unlikely to account for the preferential metastasis of PCa to bone. In addition, there was not a statistically significant difference in total RCN1 protein expression among the PCa cell lines. RCN1 also was expressed on the surface of several PCa cell lines, including those of the LNCaP human PCa progression model and the highly metastatic PC-3 cell line. Interestingly, RCN1 expression on the cell surface was upregulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha treatment of bone-marrow endothelial cells. Taken together, we show cell surface localization of RCN1 that has not been described previously for either PCa or BMEC and that the surface expression on BMEC is regulated by pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha.  相似文献
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