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G-proteins in etiolated Avena seedlings. Possible phytochrome regulation   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
L C Romero  D Sommer  C Gotor  P S Song 《FEBS letters》1991,282(2):341-346
The molecular mechanism of light signal transduction in plants mediated by the photosensor phytochrome is not well understood. The possibility that phytochrome initiates the signal transduction chain by modulating a G-protein-like receptor is examined in the present work. Etiolated Avena seedlings contain G-proteins as examined in terms of the binding of GTP as well as by cross-reaction with mammalian G-protein antibodies. The binding of GTP was regulated in vivo by red/far-red light. The possible involvement of G-proteins in the phytochrome-mediated signal transduction in etiolated Avena seedlings has been implicated from the study of the light regulated expression of the Cab and phy genes.  相似文献
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To supplement a previous analysis of spontaneous tandem-base mutations (TBM) in the lacI gene of Big Blue((R)) mice, 2658 additional mutants were sequenced from 13 tissues and 44 spontaneous TBM were identified (tripling the sample size). Previous findings were confirmed and generalized and several new observations were made. TBM differ from single and other double mutations in that TBM frequency varies dramatically with tissue type. In certain tissues, most notably male germ cells, no TBM are observed despite screening as many as 26 million plaque forming units. TBM are most frequent in kidney and liver (3.45 and 2x10(-6), respectively), accounting for 7.6 and 4.8% of all mutational events in kidney and liver, respectively. There is a trend for elevated TBM frequency in thymic lymphomas in p53-deficient mice. TBM are more frequent in old age in both liver and kidney. TBM differ from single mutations and other double mutations because they display a marked difference in pattern and dramatic tissue specificity for target sequence. Five of the 78 possible TBM outcomes comprise 79% of those observed, and mutations at GG/CC predominate. TBM in mice were compared with TBM found in human mutation databases. TBM are also rare in the human germline (one in 5133 germline mutations reported in five human mutation databases). In general, the types of somatic TBM are similar in mice and humans except for an excess of TG/CA to CA/TG TBM in humans (TBM related to ultraviolet light-induced skin cancer were excluded). TBM may be the result of unknown mechanisms that may have some similarities in mice and humans.  相似文献
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D Sommer  P S Song 《Biochemistry》1990,29(7):1943-1948
The relative extent of chromophore exposure of the red-absorbing (Pr) and far-red-absorbing (Pfr) forms of 124-kDa oat phytochrome and the secondary structure of the phytochrome apoprotein have been investigated by using zinc-induced modification of the phytochrome chromophore. The absence of bleaching of Pr in the presence of a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of zinc ions, in contrast to extensive spectral bleaching of the Pfr form, confirms previous reports of differential exposure of the Pfr chromophore relative to the Pr chromophore [Hahn et al. (1984) Plant Physiol. 74, 755-758]. The emission of orange fluorescence by zinc-chelated Pfr indicates that the Pfr chromophore has been modified from its native extended/semi-extended conformation to a cyclohelical conformation. Circular dichroism (CD) analyses of native phytochrome in 20 mM Tris buffer suggests that the Pr-to-Pfr phototransformation is accompanied by a photoreversible change in the far-UV region consistent with an increase in the alpha-helical folding of the apoprotein. The secondary structure of phytochrome in Tris buffer, as determined by CD, differs slightly from that of phytochrome in phosphate buffer, suggesting that phytochrome is a conformationally flexible molecule. Upon the addition of a 1:1 molar ratio of zinc ions to phytochrome, a dramatic change in the CD of the Pfr form is observed, while the CD spectrum of the Pf form is unaffected. Analysis of the bleached Pfr CD spectrum by the method of Chang et al. (1978) reveals that chelation with zinc ions significantly alters the secondary structure of the phytochrome molecule, specifically by increasing the beta-sheet content primarily at the expense of alpha-helical folding.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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Two new structurally characterized coordination polymers containing the P4(NR)6 ligand system are described. A convenient one-pot synthesis of P4(NR)6 (R = benzyl) via reaction of lithiated primary amine with phosphorus trichloride demonstrates an expanded scope for the preparation of this adamantane-type structure. Reactions of P4(NR)6 (R = Et, Bn) with cuprous iodide yield different products due to the differences in steric demands of the ligands.  相似文献
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Janus kinases (JAKs) are critical regulators of cytokine pathways and attractive targets of therapeutic value in both inflammatory and myeloproliferative diseases. Although the crystal structures of active JAK1 and JAK2 kinase domains have been reported recently with the clinical compound CP-690550, the structures of both TYK2 and JAK3 with CP-690550 have remained outstanding. Here, we report the crystal structures of TYK2, a first in class structure, and JAK3 in complex with PAN-JAK inhibitors CP-690550 ((3R,4R)-3-[4-methyl-3-[N-methyl-N-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)amino]piperidin-1-yl]-3-oxopropionitrile) and CMP-6 (tetracyclic pyridone 2-t-butyl-9-fluoro-3,6-dihydro-7H-benz[h]-imidaz[4,5-f]isoquinoline-7-one), both of which bind in the ATP-binding cavities of both JAK isozymes in orientations similar to that observed in crystal structures of JAK1 and JAK2. Additionally, a complete thermodynamic characterization of JAK/CP-690550 complex formation was completed by isothermal titration calorimetry, indicating the critical role of the nitrile group from the CP-690550 compound. Finally, computational analysis using WaterMap further highlights the critical positioning of the CP-690550 nitrile group in the displacement of an unfavorable water molecule beneath the glycine-rich loop. Taken together, the data emphasize the outstanding properties of the kinome-selective JAK inhibitor CP-690550, as well as the challenges in obtaining JAK isozyme-selective inhibitors due to the overall structural and sequence similarities between the TYK2, JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3 isozymes. Nevertheless, subtle amino acid variations of residues lining the ligand-binding cavity of the JAK enzymes, as well as the global positioning of the glycine-rich loop, might provide the initial clues to obtaining JAK-isozyme selective inhibitors.  相似文献
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Background

New DNA sequencing technologies have enabled detailed comparative genomic analyses of entire genera of bacterial pathogens. Prior to this study, three species of the enterobacterial genus Yersinia that cause invasive human diseases (Yersinia pestis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and Yersinia enterocolitica) had been sequenced. However, there were no genomic data on the Yersinia species with more limited virulence potential, frequently found in soil and water environments.

Results

We used high-throughput sequencing-by-synthesis instruments to obtain 25- to 42-fold average redundancy, whole-genome shotgun data from the type strains of eight species: Y. aldovae, Y. bercovieri, Y. frederiksenii, Y. kristensenii, Y. intermedia, Y. mollaretii, Y. rohdei, and Y. ruckeri. The deepest branching species in the genus, Y. ruckeri, causative agent of red mouth disease in fish, has the smallest genome (3.7 Mb), although it shares the same core set of approximately 2,500 genes as the other members of the species, whose genomes range in size from 4.3 to 4.8 Mb. Yersinia genomes had a similar global partition of protein functions, as measured by the distribution of Cluster of Orthologous Groups families. Genome to genome variation in islands with genes encoding functions such as ureases, hydrogeneases and B-12 cofactor metabolite reactions may reflect adaptations to colonizing specific host habitats.

Conclusions

Rapid high-quality draft sequencing was used successfully to compare pathogenic and non-pathogenic members of the Yersinia genus. This work underscores the importance of the acquisition of horizontally transferred genes in the evolution of Y. pestis and points to virulence determinants that have been gained and lost on multiple occasions in the history of the genus.  相似文献
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Background  

Genome assemblers have grown very large and complex in response to the need for algorithms to handle the challenges of large whole-genome sequencing projects. Many of the most common uses of assemblers, however, are best served by a simpler type of assembler that requires fewer software components, uses less memory, and is far easier to install and run.  相似文献
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