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The crystal and molecular structure of trypsin at a transiently stable intermediate step during catalysis has been determined by X-ray diffraction methods. Bovine trypsin cleaved the substrate p-nitrophenyl p-guanidinobenzoate during crystallization under conditions in which the acyl-enzyme intermediate, (guanidinobenzoyl)trypsin, was stable. Orthorhombic crystals formed in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 63.74, b = 63.54, and c = 68.93 A. This is a crystal form of bovine trypsin for which a molecular structure has not been reported. Diffraction data were measured with a FAST (Enraf Nonius) diffractometer. The structure was refined to a crystallographic residual of R = 0.16 for data in the resolution range 7.0-2.0 A. The refined model of (guanidinobenzoyl)trypsin provides insight into the structural basis for its slow rate of deacylation, which in solution at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 exhibits a t1/2 of 12 h. In addition to the rotation of the Ser-195 hydroxyl away from His-157, C beta of Ser-195 moves 0.7 A toward Asp-189 at the bottom of the active site, with respect to the native structure. This allows formation of energetically favorable H bonds and an ion pair between the carboxylate of Asp-189 and the guanidino group of the substrate. This movement is dictated by the rigidity of the aromatic ring in guanidinobenzoate--model-building indicates that this should not occur when arginine, with its more flexible aliphatic backbone, forms the ester bond with Ser-195. As a consequence, highly ordered water molecules in the active site are no longer close enough to the scissile ester bond to serve as potential nucleophiles for hydrolysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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A theory and experimental method are presented to characterize the kinetics of fast-acting, irreversible proteinase inhibitors. The theory is based upon formal analysis of the case of an irreversible inhibitor competing with a substrate for the active-site of a proteinase. From this theory, an experimental method is described by which the individual microscopic kinetic constants for the interaction of the inhibitor with the proteinase can be determined. These are, for a two-step inhibition reaction sequence, the equilibrium dissociation constant and the first-order rate constant for inhibition, and, for a one-step inhibition reaction sequence, the second-order rate constant for inhibition. The theory and experimental method were validated by an analysis of the inhibition of trypsin by the two-step synthetic inhibitor p-nitrophenyl p-guanidinobenzoate and the one-step protein inhibitor bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The substrate used in these experiments is a new, fluorogenic substrate for trypsin-like serine proteinases (Cbz-Ile-Pro-Arg-NH)2-Rhodamine, the synthesis and properties of which are described.  相似文献
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The effect of the presence of one cell type on the plasminogen activator activity of another cell type was studied. The cell types, AC and D, were isolated from a rat neuroblastoma (I. Imada and N. Sueoka, Dev. Biol. 66:97-108, 1978). AC cells are stem cells capable of multipotential differentiation in vitro and have little or no cell-associated plasminogen activator activity. D cells are tumorigenic and have high levels of cell-associated plasminogen activator activity. When AC cells were cocultivated with D cells, the plasminogen activator activity of the D cells was dramatically inhibited. The presence of as few as 1,250 AC cells inhibited 70% of the plasminogen activator activity of 20,000 D cells, as determined by a highly quantitative assay. The amount of inhibition by AC cells was proportional to the number of AC cells present. At increasing numbers of AC cells and a constant number of D cells, the Vmax for the activation of plasminogen proportionately decreased and the Km remained constant, implying that AC cells did not alter the structure or concentration of plasminogen. Inhibition was not mediated by a soluble inhibitor secreted by AC cells. Rather, attachment of AC cells adjacent to D cells, i.e., cell-to-cell contact, seemed to be required for inhibition. The substratum-attached material of AC cells, that which remained on the microwell surface after removal of AC cells with EDTA, inhibited D cell plasminogen activator activity. If plasminogen activator activity is involved in metastasis, then regulation of the plasminogen activator activity of one cell type by another cell type may be involved in determining which cells in a tumor can metastasize and where secondary tumors can arise.  相似文献
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The interaction of the human adenovirus proteinase (AVP) with various DNAs was characterized. AVP requires two cofactors for maximal activity, the 11-amino acid residue peptide from the C-terminus of adenovirus precursor protein pVI (pVIc) and the viral DNA. DNA binding was monitored by changes in enzyme activity or by fluorescence anisotropy. The equilibrium dissociation constants for the binding of AVP and AVP-pVIc complexes to 12-mer double-stranded (ds) DNA were 63 and 2.9 nM, respectively. DNA binding was not sequence specific; the stoichiometry of binding was proportional to the length of the DNA. Three molecules of the AVP-pVIc complex bound to 18-mer dsDNA and six molecules to 36-mer dsDNA. When AVP-pVIc complexes bound to 12-mer dsDNA, two sodium ions were displaced from the DNA. A Delta of -4.6 kcal for the nonelectrostatic free energy of binding indicated that a substantial component of the binding free energy results from nonspecific interactions between the AVP-pVIc complex and DNA. The cofactors altered the interaction of the enzyme with the fluorogenic substrate (Leu-Arg-Gly-Gly-NH)2-rhodamine. In the absence of any cofactor, the Km was 94.8 microM and the kcat was 0.002 s(-1). In the presence of adenovirus DNA, the Km decreased 10-fold and the kcat increased 11-fold. In the presence of pVIc, the Km decreased 10-fold and the kcat increased 118-fold. With both cofactors present, the kcat/Km ratio increased 34000-fold, compared to that with AVP alone. Binding to DNA was coincident with stimulation of proteinase activity by DNA. Although other proteinases have been shown to bind to DNA, stimulation of proteinase activity by DNA is unprecedented. A model is presented suggesting that AVP moves along the viral DNA looking for precursor protein cleavage sites much like RNA polymerase moves along DNA looking for a promoter.  相似文献
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To understand the hormonal regulation of plasminogen activators (PAs) in human breast cancer, we have examined the hormonal regulation and properties of PAs in four human breast cancer cell lines that differ markedly in their estrogen receptor (ER) content: MCF-7 cells contain high levels of ER (approx 7 pmol/mg DNA) and their PA activity was increased 3-4-fold by physiological concentrations of estradiol; T47-D and ZR-75-1 cells contain lower levels of ER (0.9 and 2.1 pmol/mg DNA respectively) and their PA activity was also increased 3-4-fold by estradiol. In contrast, MDA-MB-231 cells, which do not contain ER, showed a high level of PA activity that was not modulated by estradiol. SDS-PAGE followed by zymography indicated that MCF-7 cells secreted tissue-type PA (t-PA), T47-D and ZR-75-1 cells secreted urokinase-type PA (u-PA), and MDA-MB-231 cells secreted both types of PAs. The types of PAs secreted by these cell lines did not change upon treatment with estradiol. Dose-response curves for the stimulation of MCF-7 PA activity by different estrogens showed an excellent correlation between affinities of the estrogens for ER and their potency in stimulating PA activity. With a clonal subline of MCF-7 cells, MCF-L, a soluble inhibitor of both t-PA and u-PA was secreted. Incubation of purified t-PA or u-PA with the serum-free conditioned medium from MCF-L cells resulted in a shift in the mobility of t-PA and u-PA in SDS-polyacrylamide gels to forms increased in molecular mass by about 50,000-70,000. The shifts in molecular mass could be prevented by the presence of the competitive inhibitor p-aminobenzamidine, indicating that the active sites of the PAs were involved in the formation of these complexes. Furthermore, co-cultivation, of RT4-D rat neuroblastoma cells, which exhibit high levels of t-PA activity, with MCF-L cells resulted in a marked decrease in the PA activity of the RT4-D cells. Our results were consistent with the following conclusions: t-PA, u-PA or both were secreted by human breast cancer cells. In the ER-containing cell lines, depending upon the specific cell line, t-PA or u-PA was stimulated by estrogens. The unstimulated levels of PA activity and the magnitude of PA stimulation by estrogens were not closely related to ER content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  相似文献
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