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Reduction and coordination of arsenic in Indian mustard   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23       下载免费PDF全文
The bioaccumulation of arsenic by plants may provide a means of removing this element from contaminated soils and waters. However, to optimize this process it is important to understand the biological mechanisms involved. Using a combination of techniques, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy, we have established the biochemical fate of arsenic taken up by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea). After arsenate uptake by the roots, possibly via the phosphate transport mechanism, a small fraction is exported to the shoot via the xylem as the oxyanions arsenate and arsenite. Once in the shoot, the arsenic is stored as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex. The majority of the arsenic remains in the roots as an As(III)-tris-thiolate complex, which is indistinguishable from that found in the shoots and from As(III)-tris-glutathione. The thiolate donors are thus probably either glutathione or phytochelatins. The addition of the dithiol arsenic chelator dimercaptosuccinate to the hydroponic culture medium caused a 5-fold-increased arsenic level in the leaves, although the total arsenic accumulation was only marginally increased. This suggests that the addition of dimercaptosuccinate to arsenic-contaminated soils may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plant shoots, a process that will be essential for the development of an efficient phytoremediation strategy for this element.  相似文献
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A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.  相似文献
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Because of the central role of fibrinogen binding in platelet aggregation and recent evidence implicating S-nitrosothiol compounds in the platelet inhibitory effects of endogenous and exogenous organic nitrate compounds, we examined the effect of the S-nitrosothiol S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNOAC) on fibrinogen binding to gel-filtered human platelets. We found that SNOAC markedly inhibited the binding of fibrinogen to normal human platelets in a dose-dependent fashion and that this inhibitory effect was the result of both an increase in the apparent Kd of the platelet receptor for the fibrinogen molecule (from 6.8 x 10(-7) to 1.8 x 10(-6) M, a 2.7-fold increase) and a decrease in the total number of fibrinogen molecules bound to the platelet (from 76,200 to 38,250, a 50% decrease). In addition, we noted a rapid, dose-dependent rise in platelet cyclic GMP levels following exposure of platelets to SNOAC which was significantly inversely correlated with fibrinogen binding and was accompanied by inhibition of intracellular calcium flux in response to a variety of platelet agonists. Similar dose-dependent inhibition of fibrinogen binding was found in the presence of cyclic GMP analogues and was significantly enhanced by inhibition of platelet cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase. These results describe the inhibition of platelet fibrinogen binding by an S-nitrosothiol compound, help define the biochemical mechanism by which S-nitrosothiols inhibit platelet aggregation, and lend support to the view that cyclic GMP is an important inhibitory intracellular mediator in human platelets.  相似文献
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We determined that the coding sequence for a 100-kilodalton super-T antigen found in Simian virus 40 mouse transformants spanned two separate partial repeats of the viral genome. The downstream repeat contained a complete Simian virus 40 large-T-antigen gene, whereas the upstream repeat was a truncated copy of the same gene. When the repeats were separated by subcloning, the capacity to code for the super-T antigen was lost. A small insertion or deletion in the origin-control region which preceded the second repeat could also destroy the ability to code for the 100-kilodalton protein. Our data suggest that differential splicing between parts of two gene copies was responsible for the additional molecular weight of this super-T antigen.  相似文献
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Two prevailing paradigms explain the diversity of sex-determining modes in reptiles. Many researchers, particularly those who study reptiles, consider genetic and environmental sex-determining mechanisms to be fundamentally different, and that one can be demonstrated experimentally to the exclusion of the other. Other researchers, principally those who take a broader taxonomic perspective, argue that no clear boundaries exist between them. Indeed, we argue that genetic and environmental sex determination in reptiles should be seen as a continuum of states represented by species whose sex is determined primarily by genotype, species where genetic and environmental mechanisms coexist and interact in lesser or greater measure to bring about sex phenotypes, and species where sex is determined primarily by environment. To do otherwise limits the scope of investigations into the transition between the two and reduces opportunities to use studies of reptiles to advance understanding of vertebrate sex determination generally.  相似文献
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Plant growth-promoting bacteria are useful to phytoremediation strategies in that they confer advantages to plants in contaminated soil. When plant growth-promoting bacteria contain the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, the bacterial cell acts as a sink for ACC, the immediate biosynthetic precursor of the plant growth regulator ethylene thereby lowering plant ethylene levels and decreasing the negative effects of various environmental stresses. In an effort to gain the advantages provided by bacterial ACC deaminase in the phytoremediation of metals from the environment two transgenic canola lines with the gene for this enzyme were generated and tested. In these transgenic canola plants, expression of the ACC deaminase gene is driven by either tandem constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoters or the root specific rolD promoter from Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Following the growth of transgenic and non-transformed canola in nickel contaminated soil, it was observed that the rolD plants demonstrate significantly increased tolerance to nickel compared to the non-transformed control plants.  相似文献
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This study examines the effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on the expression of Type I and II transglutaminase in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK cells). Treatment of undifferentiated NHEK cells with 100 pM TGF-beta 1 caused a 10- to 15-fold increase in the activity of a soluble transglutaminase. Based on its cellular distribution and immunoreactivity this transglutaminase was identified as Type II (tissue) transglutaminase. TGF-beta 1 did not enhance the levels of the membrane-bound Type I (epidermal) transglutaminase activity which is induced during squamous cell differentiation and did not increase Type II transglutaminase activity in differentiated NHEK cells. Several SV40 large T antigen-immortalized NHEK cell lines also exhibited a dramatic increase in transglutaminase Type II activity after TGF-beta 1 treatment; however, TGF-beta 1 did not induce any significant change in transglutaminase activity in the carcinoma-derived cell lines SCC-13, SCC-15, and SQCC/Y1. Half-maximal stimulation of transglutaminase Type II activity in NHEK cells occurred at a dose of 15 pM TGF-beta 1. TGF-beta 2 was about equally effective. This enhancement in transglutaminase activity was related to an increase in the amount of transglutaminase Type II protein as indicated by immunoblot analysis. Northern blot analyses using a specific cDNA probe for Type II transglutaminase showed that exposure of NHEK cells to TGF-beta 1 caused a marked increase in the mRNA levels of this enzyme which could be observed as early as 4 h after the addition of TGF-beta 1. Maximal induction of transglutaminase Type II mRNA occurred between 18 and 24 h. The increase in Type II transglutaminase mRNA levels was blocked by the presence of cycloheximide, suggesting that this increase in mRNA by TGF-beta 1 is dependent on protein synthesis.  相似文献
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Changes in epithelial substrate have been related to the cellular capacity for proliferation and to changes in cellular behavior. The effect of TGF beta 1 on the expression of the basement membrane genes, fibronectin, laminin B1, and collagen alpha 1 (IV), was examined. Northern analysis revealed that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with 100 pM TGF beta 1 increased the expression of each extracellular matrix (ECM) gene within 4 h of treatment. Maximal induction was reached within 24 h after treatment. The induction of ECM mRNA expression was dose dependent and was observed at doses as low as 1-3 pM TGF beta 1. Incremental doses of TGF beta 1 also increased cellular levels of fibronectin protein in undifferentiated keratinocytes and resulted in increased secretion of fibronectin. Squamous-differentiated cultures of keratinocytes expressed lower levels of the extracellular matrix RNAs than did undifferentiated cells. Treatment of these differentiated cells with TGF beta 1 induced the expression of fibronectin mRNA to levels seen in TGF beta-treated, undifferentiated keratinocytes but only marginally increased the expression of collagen alpha 1 (IV) and laminin B1 mRNA. The increased fibronectin mRNA expression in the differentiated keratinocytes was also reflected by increased accumulation of cellular and secreted fibronectin protein. The inclusion of cycloheximide in the protocol indicated that TGF beta induction of collagen alpha 1 (IV) mRNA was signaled by proteins already present in the cells but that TGF beta required the synthesis of a protein(s) to fully induce expression of fibronectin and laminin B1 mRNA. The differential regulation of these genes in differentiated cells may be important to TGF beta action in regulating reepithelialization.  相似文献
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