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Block to multiplication of adenovirus serotype 2 in monkey cells.   总被引:46,自引:38,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
The block to adenovirus 2 (Ad2) multiplication in monkey cells can be overcome by coinfection with simian virus 40 (SV40). To identify this block we have compared the synthesis of Ad2 proteins in monkey cells infected with Ad2 alone (unenhanced) or with Ad2 plus SV40 (enhanced). Synthesis of viral proteins in enhanced cells was virtually identical to that found for permissive infection of human cells by Ad2 alone. In contrast, the unenhanced cells were strikingly deficient in the production of the IV (fiber) and 11.5K proteins whereas the synthesis of 100K and IVa2 was normal. Synthesis of a number of other proteins such as II, V, and P-VII was partially reduced. A similar specific reduction in synthesis of these proteins was found when their messages were assayed by cell-free translation. This result suggests that the block to Ad2 protein synthesis is at the RNA level rather than with the translational machinery of monkey cells. Analysis of the complexity and the concentration of Ak2-specific RNAs, using hybridization of restriction endonuclease fragments of the Ad2 genome to increasing concentrations of RNA, shows that although all species of late Ad2 mRNA are present, the concentration of several species is reduced sevenfold or more in unenhanced monkey cells as compared with enhanced cells. These species come from regions of the genome known to encode the deficient proteins. A model for the failure of adenovirus to multiply in monkey cells, based on abnormal processing of specific adenovirus messages, is presented.  相似文献
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Nitric oxide as a signal in plants.   总被引:41,自引:0,他引:41  
Molecular, genetic and biochemical studies have identified key players in the signaling pathways regulating growth and development, as well as defense responses in plants. Recently, nitric oxide (NO) - the versatile and powerful effector of animal redox-regulated signaling and immune responses - was shown to mediate plant defense responses against pathogens. Interestingly, several key components involved in NO-mediated signaling in animals also appear to be operative in plants.  相似文献
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T Grodzicker  D F Klessig 《Cell》1980,21(2):453-463
We have introduced adenovirus 2 genes into high molecular weight DNA of permissive human cells by co-transformation of tk- human 143 cells with Ad2 restriction enzyme fragments and a cloned Bam HI fragment that carries the HSV-1 thymidine kinase gene. Tk+ cells were isolated after selection and maintenance in HAT medium. Several co-transformed lines are able to complement the growth of Ad5 dl312 (delta 1.2--3.7) and Ad5 dl434 (delta 2.6--8.7), deletion mutants that lack sequences from the left end of the viral genome. The amount and arrangement of viral sequences in the co-transformed cell lines have been analyzed by restriction endonuclease digestion and filter hybridization. Most of the cell lines contain a single insertion of the HSV-1 tk fragment and a single insert of adenoviral DNA. However, one line (B1) contains at least four different insertions, two of which are present in multiple copies. The adenoviral DNA in all cell lines is composed of sequences from the left end of the genome and extends for varying lengths in different lines. Two cell lines that complement deletion mutants efficiently synthesize both early region 1a and 1b mRNAs. The B1 line synthesizes low levels of 1a mRNA, higher levels of 1b mRNA and a unique mRNA that maps to the right of the 1b gene family. When grown continuously in HAT medium, some cell lines are quite stable while others are fairly unstable. Some tk+ subclones support the growth of viral mutants as well as the parental line while others give reduced levels of complementation. For all tk+ subclones examined, the alteration or reduction in viral gene expression is independent of changes in the pattern of integration of viral DNA.  相似文献
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In cotyledons of 6-day-old amaranth seedlings, the large subunit (LSU) and the small subunit (SSU) polypeptides of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase are not synthesized in the absence of light. When dark-grown seedlings were transferred into light, synthesis of both polypeptides was induced within the first 3 to 5 hr of illumination without any significant changes in levels of their mRNAs. In cotyledons of light-grown seedlings and of dark-grown seedlings transferred into light for 5 hr (where ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase synthesis was readily detected in vivo), the LSU and SSU mRNAs were associated with polysomes. In cotyledons of dark-grown seedlings, these two mRNAs were not found on polysomes. In contrast to the SSU message, mRNAs encoding the nonlight-regulated, nuclear-encoded proteins actin and ubiquitin were associated with polysomes regardless of the light conditions. Similarly, mRNA from at least one chloroplast-encoded gene (rpl2) was found on polysomes in the dark as well as in the light. These results indicate an absence of translational initiation in cotyledons of dark-grown seedlings which is specific to a subset of nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded genes including the SSU and LSU, respectively. Upon illumination, synthesis of both polypeptides, and possibly other proteins involved in light-mediated chloroplast development, was induced at the level of translational initiation.  相似文献
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MAPK cascades in plant defense signaling.   总被引:19,自引:0,他引:19  
The Arabidopsis genome encodes approximately 20 different mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are likely to be involved in growth, development and responses to endogenous and environmental cues. Several plant MAPKs are activated by a variety of stress stimuli, including pathogen infection, wounding, temperature, drought, salinity, osmolarity, UV irradiation, ozone and reactive oxygen species. Recent gain-of-function studies show that two tobacco MAPKs induce the expression of defense genes and cause cell death. By contrast, loss-of-function studies of other MAPK pathways revealed negative regulation of disease resistance. This 'push-and-pull' regulation by different MAPK pathways might provide a more precise control of plant defense responses.  相似文献
9.
The DNA-binding protein (DBP) encoded by human adenoviruses is a multifunctional polypeptide which plays a central role in regulating the expression of the viral genes. To gain a better understanding of the relationships between the various functions provided by DBP, an extensive collection of DBP mutants is essential. To this end we have constructed several permissive human cell lines which contain and express the DBP gene at high levels to allow propagation of otherwise lethal, nonrecoverable mutants of DBP. Because DBP is toxic to human cells, cell lines were constructed by using a vector in which the DBP gene is under the control of the dexamethasone-inducible promoter of the mouse mammary tumor virus. The low basal levels of DBP synthesis in the absence of dexamethasone allows isolation and propagation of these cells. Addition of dexamethasone enhances DBP production 50- to 200-fold, and within 8 h its synthesis from the single integrated copy of the chimeric gene is 5 to 15% of that observed during peak DBP synthesis in infected human cells in which hundreds of copies of the DBP gene serve as templates. At the nonpermissive temperature, adenovirus mutants with ts lesions in the DBP gene replicate their DNAs, express their late genes, and form infectious viral particles in these DBP+ cell lines but not in the parental HeLa cells.  相似文献
10.
The adenovirus DNA-binding protein (DBP) is an abundant multifunctional protein located primarily in the nuclei of infected cells. To define sequences involved in nuclear transport of DBP, a series of point and small deletion mutants were constructed via oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis. Two short stretches of basic amino acids located in the amino-terminal domain (amino acids 42 to 46 and 84 to 89) were identified. Their importance, however, depended on the context in which DBP was expressed. Disruption of either site prevented nuclear localization after transient expression in transfected 293 cells, implying that two nuclear localization signals are necessary for transport of this nuclear protein. In contrast, the mutant DBPs synthesized during viral infection were located either primarily in the nucleus or in the nucleus and cytoplasm, depending on the mutation and the stage of the viral infection. Thus, the nuclear localization defect could be complemented by viral infection, perhaps through the interaction of the mutant polypeptide with a virus-encoded or -induced factor(s).  相似文献
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