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1.
Serum neutralizing antibodies against the human immunodeficiency virus were frequently detected in infected individuals, and low or absent serum neutralizing titers correlated with poor prognosis. Multiple diverse human immunodeficiency virus isolates were found to exhibit similar susceptibility to neutralization by a panel of human seropositive sera, suggesting that neutralizing antibodies are largely directed against conserved viral domains. Furthermore, utilizing antisera raised against a library of synthetic env peptides, four regions which are important in the neutralization process have been identified within both human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (gp41 and gp120). Three of these are in conserved domains and should be considered for inclusion in a candidate vaccine.  相似文献
2.
Primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are much less sensitive to neutralization by soluble CD4 (sCD4) and sCD4-immunoglobulin (Ig) chimeras (CD4-IgG) than are HIV-1 strains adapted to growth in cell culture. We demonstrated that there are significant reductions (10- to 30-fold) in the binding of sCD4 and CD4-IgG to intact virions of five primary isolates compared with sCD4-sensitive, cell culture-adapted isolates RF and IIIB. However, soluble envelope glycoproteins (gp120) derived from the primary isolate virions, directly by detergent solubilization or indirectly by recombinant DNA technology, differed in affinity from RF and IIIB gp120 by only one- to threefold. The reduced binding of sCD4 to these primary isolate virions must therefore be a consequence of the tertiary or quaternary structure of the envelope glycoproteins in their native, oligomeric form on the viral surface. In addition, the rate and extent of sCD4-induced gp120 shedding from these primary isolates was lower than that from RF. We suggest that reduced sCD4 binding and increased gp120 retention together account for the relative resistance of these primary isolates to neutralization by sCD4 and CD4-IgG and that virions of different HIV-1 isolates vary both in the mechanism of sCD4 binding and in subsequent conformational changes in their envelope glycoproteins.  相似文献
3.
A human monoclonal antibody designated 15e is reactive with the envelope glycoprotein (gp120) of multiple isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Antibody 15e also neutralizes HIV-1 with broad specificity and blocks gp120 binding to CD4. Characterization of the 15e epitope shows that it is conformation dependent and is distinct from previously recognized functional domains of gp120, suggesting that this epitope represents a novel site important for HIV-1 neutralization and CD4 binding. These findings have implications for the development of a vaccine for AIDS.  相似文献
4.
Induction of anti-HIV neutralizing antibodies by synthetic peptides.   总被引:47,自引:0,他引:47       下载免费PDF全文
Two synthetic peptides containing amino acid sequences analogous to the envelope glycoprotein of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type III (HTLV-III) and lymphadenopathy associated virus (LAV) were produced and used to immunize rabbits. The subsequent rabbit antisera neutralized HTLV-III infectivity in vitro. The two synthetic peptides corresponded to regions associated with the gp120 or gp41 subunits respectively, of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This data indicates that at least two neutralizing epitopes are present on the envelope glycoprotein of HIV and these epitopes are associated with two distinct virus envelope glycoproteins. Antisera generated against these peptides neutralized infectivity of two different isolates of HTLV-III. The data is discussed in terms of possible strategy for developing an effective vaccine against the etiologic agents of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).  相似文献
5.
R I Connor  H Mohri  Y Cao    D D Ho 《Journal of virology》1993,67(4):1772-1777
The rate of clinical progression is variable among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Changes in viral burden which correlate with disease status have been demonstrated in cross-sectional studies; however, a detailed longitudinal study of the temporal relationship between viral burden, CD4+ T-cell numbers, and clinical status throughout the course of infection has not been reported. Multiple longitudinal blood samples were obtained from four HIV-1-infected individuals with clinically divergent profiles. Levels of HIV-1 were measured in sequential samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, using both end-point dilution cultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Serial HIV-1 isolates from each case were also evaluated to determine their biological properties in vitro. For the three patients with clinical progression, a dramatic increase in the level of HIV-1 was observed concurrent with or prior to a marked drop in CD4+ T lymphocytes. This increase in viral burden was temporally associated with the emergence of a more cytopathic viral phenotype. In contrast, consistently low levels of HIV-1 were observed in the one patient who was clinically and immunologically stable for more than a decade. Moreover, viral isolates from this patient were less cytopathic in vitro compared with HIV-1 isolates from those patients with disease progression. The temporal association between increased viral burden and CD4+ T-cell decline suggests a direct role for HIV-1 in the cytopathology of CD4+ T cells in vivo. Our results indicate that the pathogenic mechanisms responsible for CD4+ T-cell depletion may be related to both quantitative and qualitative changes in HIV-1.  相似文献
6.
Two monoclonal antibodies designated BAT085 and G3-136 were raised by immunizing BALB/c mice with gp120 purified from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB-infected H9 cell extracts. Among three HIV-1 laboratory isolates (IIIB, MN, and RF), BAT085 neutralized only IIIB infection of CEM-SS cells, whereas G3-136 neutralized both IIIB and RF. These antibodies also neutralized a few primary HIV-1 isolates in the infection of activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In indirect immunofluorescence assays, BAT085 bound to H9 cells infected with IIIB or MN, while G3-136 bound to H9 cells infected with IIIB or RF, but not MN. Using sequence-overlapping synthetic peptides of HIV-1 IIIB gp120, the binding site of BAT085 and G3-136 was mapped to a peptidic segment in the V2 region (amino acid residues 169 to 183). The binding of these antibodies to immobilized gp120 was not inhibited by the antibodies directed to the principal neutralization determinant in the V3 region or to the CD4-binding domain of gp120. In a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, soluble CD4 inhibited G3-136 but not BAT085 from binding to gp120. Deglycosylation of gp120 by endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H or reduction of gp120 by dithiothreitol diminished its reactivity with G3-136 but not with BAT085. These results indicate that the V2 region of gp120 contains multiple neutralization determinants recognized by antibodies in both a conformation-dependent and -independent manner.  相似文献
7.
We have used an indirect-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate the reactivity of sera from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans with native recombinant gp120 (HIV-1 IIIB or SF-2) or with the gp120 molecule (IIIB or SF-2) denatured by being boiled in the presence of dithiothreitol with or without sodium dodecyl sulfate. Denaturation of IIIB gp120 reduced the titers of sera from randomly selected donors by at least 100-fold, suggesting that the majority of cross-reactive anti-gp120 antibodies present are directed against discontinuous or otherwise conformationally sensitive epitopes. When SF-2 gp120 was used, four of eight serum samples reacted significantly with the denatured protein, albeit with ca. 3- to 50-fold reductions in titer. Only those sera reacting with denatured SF-2 gp120 bound significantly to solid-phase-adsorbed SF-2 V3 loop peptide, and none bound to IIIB V3 loop peptide. Almost all antibody binding to reduced SF-2 gp120 was blocked by preincubation with the SF-2 V3 loop peptide, as was about 50% of the binding to native SF-2 gp120. When sera from a laboratory worker or a chimpanzee infected with IIIB were tested, the pattern of reactivity was reversed, i.e., there was significant binding to reduced IIIB gp120, but not to reduced SF-2 gp120. Binding of these sera to reduced IIIB gp120 was 1 to 10% that to native IIIB gp120 and was substantially decreased by preincubation with IIIB (but not SF-2) V3 loop peptide. To analyze which discontinuous or conformational epitopes were predominant in HIV-1-positive sera, we prebound monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to IIIB gp120 and then added alkaline phosphatase-labelled HIV-1-positive sera. MAbs (such as 15e) that recognize discontinuous epitopes and compete directly with CD4 reduced HIV-1-positive sera binding by about 50%, whereas neutralizing MAbs to the C4, V2, and V3 domains of gp120 were either not inhibitory or only weakly so. Thus, antibodies to the discontinuous CD4-binding site on gp120 are prevalent in HIV-1-positive sera, antibodies to linear epitopes are less common, most of the antibodies to linear epitopes are directed against the V3 region, and most cross-reactive antibodies are directed against discontinuous epitopes, including regions involved in CD4 binding.  相似文献
8.
Monoclonal antibodies have been isolated from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients that recognize discontinuous epitopes on the gp120 envelope glycoprotein, that block gp120 interaction with the CD4 receptor, and that neutralize a variety of HIV-1 isolates. Using a panel of HIV-1 gp120 mutants, we identified amino acids important for precipitation of the gp120 glycoprotein by three different monoclonal antibodies with these properties. These amino acids are located within seven discontinuous, conserved regions of the gp120 glycoprotein, four of which overlap those regions previously shown to be important for CD4 recognition. The pattern of sensitivity to amino acid change in these seven regions differed for each antibody and also differed from that of the CD4 glycoprotein. These results indicate that the CD4 receptor and this group of broadly neutralizing antibodies recognize distinct but overlapping gp120 determinants.  相似文献
9.
A panel of anti-gp120 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), CD4-IgG, and sera from people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for neutralization of nine primary HIV-1 isolates, one molecularly cloned primary strain (JR-CSF), and two strains (IIIB and MN) adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines. All the viruses were grown in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and were tested for their ability to infect these cells in the presence and absence of the reagents mentioned above. In general, the primary isolates were relatively resistant to neutralization by the MAbs tested, compared with the T-cell line-adapted strains. However, one HuMAb, IgG1b12, was able to neutralize most of the primary isolates at concentrations of < or = 1 microgram/ml. Usually, the inability of a HuMAb to neutralize a primary isolate was not due merely to the absence of the antibody epitope from the virus; the majority of the HuMAbs bound with high affinity to monomeric gp120 molecules derived from various strains but neutralized the viruses inefficiently. We infer therefore that the mechanism of resistance of primary isolates to most neutralizing antibodies is complex, and we suggest that it involves an inaccessibility of antibody binding sites in the context of the native glycoprotein complex on the virion. Such a mechanism would parallel that which was previously postulated for soluble CD4 resistance. We conclude that studies of HIV-1 neutralization that rely on strains adapted to growth in transformed T-cell lines yield the misleading impression that HIV-1 is readily neutralized. The more relevant primary HIV-1 isolates are relatively resistant to neutralization, although these isolates can be potently neutralized by a subset of human polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies.  相似文献
10.
The contributions of the first and second variable regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein to envelope glycoprotein structure, function, and recognition by a neutralizing antibody were studied. Several mutants with substitutions in the V2 loop demonstrated complete dissociation of the gp120 and gp41 glycoproteins, suggesting that inappropriate changes in V2 conformation can affect subunit assembly. Some glycoproteins with changes in V1 or V2 were efficiently expressed on the cell surface and were able to bind CD4 but were deficient in syncytium formation and/or virus entry. Recognition of gp120 by the neutralizing monoclonal antibody G3-4 was affected by particular substitutions affecting residues 176 to 184 in the V2 loop. These results suggest that the V1/V2 variable regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 glycoprotein play a role in postreceptor binding events in the membrane fusion process and can act as a target for neutralizing antibodies.  相似文献
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