首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   9篇
  完全免费   2篇
  2005年   1篇
  2003年   1篇
  2001年   1篇
  2000年   2篇
  1991年   1篇
  1987年   2篇
  1983年   1篇
  1978年   1篇
  1977年   1篇
排序方式: 共有11条查询结果,搜索用时 78 毫秒
1.
Cellular immune responses play a critical role in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); however, the breadth of these responses at the single-epitope level has not been comprehensively assessed. We therefore screened peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 57 individuals at different stages of HIV-1 infection for virus-specific T-cell responses using a matrix of 504 overlapping peptides spanning all expressed HIV-1 proteins in a gamma interferon-enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assay. HIV-1-specific T-cell responses were detectable in all study subjects, with a median of 14 individual epitopic regions targeted per person (range, 2 to 42), and all 14 HIV-1 protein subunits were recognized. HIV-1 p24-Gag and Nef contained the highest epitope density and were also the most frequently recognized HIV-1 proteins. The total magnitude of the HIV-1-specific response ranged from 280 to 25,860 spot-forming cells (SFC)/10(6) PBMC (median, 4,245) among all study participants. However, the number of epitopic regions targeted, the protein subunits recognized, and the total magnitude of HIV-1-specific responses varied significantly among the tested individuals, with the strongest and broadest responses detectable in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Neither the breadth nor the magnitude of the total HIV-1-specific CD8+-T-cell responses correlated with plasma viral load. We conclude that a peptide matrix-based Elispot assay allows for rapid, sensitive, specific, and efficient assessment of cellular immune responses directed against the entire expressed HIV-1 genome. These data also suggest that the impact of T-cell responses on control of viral replication cannot be explained by the mere quantification of the magnitude and breadth of the CD8+-T-cell response, even if a comprehensive pan-genome screening approach is applied.  相似文献
2.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is an industrially significant probiotic strain with proven health benefits. In this study, the effect of glucose on L. rhamnosus GG survival was analyzed in simulated gastric juice at pH 2.0. It was found that the presence of 19.4 mM glucose resulted in up to 6-log10-enhanced survival following 90 min of exposure. Further work with dilute HCl confirmed that glucose was the sole component responsible. Comparative analysis with other Lactobacillus strains revealed that enhanced survival was apparent in all strains, but at different pH values. The presence of glucose at concentrations from 1 to 19.4 mM enhanced L. rhamnosus GG survival from 6.4 to 8 log10 CFU ml−1 in simulated gastric juice. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of glucose were investigated. Addition of N′,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide to simulated gastric juice caused survival to collapse, which was indicative of a prominent role in inhibition of F0F1-ATPase. Further work with neomycin-resistant mutants that exhibited 38% to 48% of the F0F1-ATPase activity of the parent confirmed this, as the survival in the presence of glucose of these mutants decreased 3 × 106-fold compared with the survival of the wild type (which had a viability of 8.02 log10 CFU ml−1). L. rhamnosus GG survival in acidic conditions occurred only in the presence of sugars that it could metabolize efficiently. To confirm the involvement of glycolysis in the glucose effect, iodoacetic acid was used to inhibit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity. The reduction in GAPDH activity caused survival to decrease by 8.30 log10 CFU ml−1 in the presence of glucose. The data indicate that glucose provides ATP to F0F1-ATPase via glycolysis, enabling proton exclusion and thereby enhancing survival during gastric transit.  相似文献
3.
4.
Treatment of renal brush-border membrane vesicles with papain resulted in the removal of the activity of maltase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and leucine aminopeptidase by 85, 50 and 75%, respectively. Stripping of these membrane enzyme activities constituted about 2% of the total membrane proteins and resulted in a widespread diminution in the ability of a variety of amino acids and sugars to be taken up by the membrane vesicles which remained osmotically responsive. Kinetic analysis of the uptake of proline, which was shown previously to be transported by both sodium-dependent and sodium-independent systems, revealed that the Vmax for the sodium-dependent system and Km for the sodium-independent system were halved, but other parameters were not affected indicating that the papain treatment altered sodium-gradient-stimulated entry and the affinity of the sodium-gradient-independent system for proline. Experiments on sodium entry and efflux demonstrate a marked enhancement of flux, so that equilibration of the sodium gradient occurred about 5-times more rapidly than in untreated vesicles. This occurred without any change in the osmotic properties of the vesicle with regard to sodium or amino acid uptake. Studies of fluorescence polarization suggest that incubation with papain does not alter the lipid domains of the membrane.  相似文献
5.
An exact trend test for correlated binary data   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
The problem of testing a dose-response relationship in the presence of exchangeably correlated binary data has been addressed using a variety of models. Most commonly used approaches are derived from likelihood or generalized estimating equations and rely on large-sample theory to justify their inferences. However, while earlier work has determined that these methods may perform poorly for small or sparse samples, there are few alternatives available to those faced with such data. We propose an exact trend test for exchangeably correlated binary data when groups of correlated observations are ordered. This exact approach is based on an exponential model derived by Molenberghs and Ryan (1999) and Ryan and Molenberghs (1999) and provides natural analogues to Fisher's exact test and the binomial trend test when the data are correlated. We use a graphical method with which one can efficiently compute the exact tail distribution and apply the test to two examples.  相似文献
6.
Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is a water channel expressed abundantly at the apical pole of choroidal epithelial cells. The protein expression was quantified by immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy in adult rats adapted to altered gravity. AQP1 expression was decreased by 64% at the apical pole of choroidal cells in rats dissected 5.5-8 h after a 14-day spaceflight. AQP1 was significantly overexpressed in rats readapted for 2 days to Earth's gravity after an 11-day flight (48% overshoot, when compared with the value measured in control rats). In a ground-based model that simulates some effects of weightlessness and alters choroidal structures and functions, apical AQP1 expression was reduced by 44% in choroid plexus from rats suspended head down for 14 days and by 69% in rats suspended for 28 days. Apical AQP1 was rapidly enhanced in choroid plexus of rats dissected 6 h after a 14-day suspension (57% overshoot, in comparison with control rats) and restored to the control level when rats were dissected 2 days after the end of a 14-day suspension. Decreases in the apical expression of choroidal AQP1 were also noted in rats adapted to hypergravity in the NASA 24-ft centrifuge: AQP1 expression was reduced by 47% and 85% in rats adapted for 14 days to 2 G and 3 G, respectively. AQP1 is downregulated in the apical membrane of choroidal cells in response to altered gravity and is rapidly restored after readaptation to normal gravity. This suggests that water transport, which is partly involved in the choroidal production of cerebrospinal fluid, might be decreased during spaceflight and after chronic hypergravity.  相似文献
7.
8.
An enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was developed for detecting mycobacterial antibodies in the sera of 22 Macaca fascicularis following a natural outbreak of tuberculosis. EIAs were conducted using four antigens (lysozyme, triton, or deoxycholate extracts of Mycobacterium tuberculosis or a purified protein derivative) and two conjugates (protein A or antihuman). Mycobacterial antibodies were detected in two of two culture-positive monkeys, in nine of ten tuberculin test-suspect monkeys (culture-negative), and in five of ten tuberculin test-negative monkeys (culture-negative). Results indicate EIA may be of practical value in detecting monkeys exposed to M. tuberculosis.  相似文献
9.
The feasibility of using specific enzyme and transport inhibitors to minimize the glutamine response of a potentiometric microbial sensor is demonstrated. The glutamine response of a bacterial electrode prepared with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst in conjunction with an ammonia gas-sensing electrode was greatly reduced by treating the electrode with the enzyme inhibitor 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DONL) and the transport inhibitor gamma-L-glutamylhydrazide. Each inhibitor effectively decreased glutamine response to a level sufficiently low to be considered negligible in clinical studies. Although the sensor ultimately recovered from the effects of a single exposure to an inhibitor, continuous exposure at an optimum concentration maintained a low response to glutamine. Furthermore, the treatment of the sensor with both inhibitors simultaneously resulted in a negligible response to glutamine of <1 mV, indicating that both inhibitors are necessary for optimum inhibition of glutamine response. This approach is promising as a means of enhancing the selectivity of microbial sensors.  相似文献
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号