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Application of AFLP markers to genome mapping in poultry   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20  
The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique has been used to enhance marker density in the East Lansing reference chicken genome map, using a backcross family derived from a Red Jungle Fowl by White Leghorn mating with White Leghorn as the recurrent parent. To date, 204 AFLP markers have been added, expanding overall map coverage by about 25%. To the limits of our resolution, AFLP markers are distributed relatively evenly across the EL reference map. AFLP are about 60% as frequent in a cross within White Leghorns (line 7(2) x 6(3)) in comparison to the more divergent reference map population. Based on apparent identity of size, about 40% of the 7(2) x 6(3) cross AFLP fragments were also polymorphic in the reference map cross. Primer pairs in which one primer contains 3' extensions of three selective nucleotides and the other has two selective nucleotides successfully generated AFLP from chicken DNA, but such pairs appeared to amplify only a subset of those fragments to which they have an exact sequence match. Three different restriction enzymes with 4 bp recognition sites (TaqI, HinP1I and MspI) were found to work well with EcoRI as the rarer of the two AFLP restriction enzymes used, with HinP1I being the most effective of the three. AFLP markers are likely to provide an economical method with which to enhance framework linkage maps of chicken and probably other avian genomes.  相似文献
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A large number of mutations were introduced into the carboxy-terminal domain of pp60c-src. The level of phosphorylation on Tyr-416 and Tyr-527, the transforming activity (as measured by focus formation on NIH 3T3 cells), kinase activity, and the ability of the mutant pp60c-src to associate with the middle-T antigen of polyomavirus were examined. The results indicate that Tyr-527 is a major carboxy-terminal element responsible for regulating pp60c-src in vivo. A good but not perfect correlation exists between lack of phosphorylation at Tyr-527 and increased phosphorylation at Tyr-416, between elevated phosphorylation on Tyr-416 and activated kinase activity, and between activated kinase activity and transforming activity. Phosphorylation of Tyr-527 was insensitive to the mutation of adjacent residues, indicating that the primary sequence only has a minor role in recognition by kinases or phosphatases which regulate it in vivo. Three mutants which have in common a modified Glu-524 residue were phosphorylated on Tyr-416 and Tyr-527 and were weakly transforming. This suggests that other mechanisms besides complete dephosphorylation of Tyr-527 can lead to increased phosphorylation of Tyr-416 and activation of the transforming activity of pp60c-src. Furthermore, the residues between Asp-518 and Pro-525 were required to form a stable complex with middle-T antigen. The proximity of these sequences to Tyr-527 suggests a model in which middle-T activates pp60c-src by binding directly to this region of the molecular and thereby preventing phosphorylation of Tyr-527. Alternatively, middle-T binding may mediate a conformational change in this region, which in turn induces an alteration in the level of phosphorylation at Tyr-527 and Tyr-416.  相似文献
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B-lymphocyte development requires the basic helix-loop-helix proteins encoded by the E2A gene. In this study, the control mechanism of E2A was further explored by disruption of the E2A-related genes, E2-2 and HEB. In contrast to E2A, E2-2 and HEB are not essential for the establishment of the B-cell lineage. However, both E2-2 and HEB are required for the generation of the normal numbers of pro-B cells in mouse embryos. Breeding tests among mice carrying different mutations revealed that E2-2 and HEB interact with E2A in many developmental processes including generation of B cells. Specifically, mice transheterozygous for any two mutations of these three genes produced fewer pro-B cells than the singly heterozygous littermates. This study indicates that B-cell development is dependent not only on an essential function provided by the E2A gene but also on a combined dosage set by E2A, E2-2, and HEB.  相似文献
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Eleven isolates of Bacteriodes succinogenes were obtained from the rumen of a cow by an enrichment method with dewaxed cotton fibers as the selective substrate. All of the isolates degraded cotton fibers, but none formed clear zones in cellulose agar, having only a limited ability to degrade the type of cellulose powder used. One isolate, BL2, was studied in greater detail and was found to accumulate a glycogen-like polysaccharide when excess (0.5 to 1.0%) soluble carbohydrate was supplied in the nutrient medium. Although the pattern of growth and polysaccharide accumulation by strain BL2 changed during maintenance of the organism in the laboratory, the maximum amount of carbohydrate found in the cells was constant, at around 74% of the cell dry weight. The findings are discussed in relation to the methods of assessing the role of B. succinogenes in the rumen fermentation.  相似文献
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Brazzein is a 54-amino-acid sweet-tasting protein first isolated from the fruit of Pentadiplandra brazzeana Baillon found in West Africa. Brazzein, as isolated from the fruit, is 500 times sweeter than sucrose on a weight basis (9500 times sweeter on a per-molecule basis). A minor component of brazzein from fruit, des-pGlu1-brazzein, has 53 amino acid residues and has twice the sweetness of the parent protein. We have designed a gene for des-pGlu1- brazzein that incorporates codons that are optimal for protein production in Escherichia coli. Production of brazzein from the chemically synthesized gene resulted in recombinant protein with sweetness similar to that of brazzein isolated from the original source. The best yields were achieved by producing brazzein as a fusion with staphylococcal nuclease with a designed cyanogen bromide cleavage site. Because of its intense sweetness and stability at high pH and temperature, brazzein is an ideal system for investigating the chemical and structural requirements involved in sweet-taste properties. This efficient protein production system for brazzein will facilitate such investigations.  相似文献
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Active efflux of bile salts by Escherichia coli.   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
Enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli must tolerate high levels of bile salts, powerful detergents that disrupt biological membranes. The outer membrane barrier of gram-negative bacteria plays an important role in this resistance, but ultimately it can only retard the influx of bile salts. We therefore examined whether E. coli possessed an energy-dependent efflux mechanism for these compounds. Intact cells of E. coli K-12 appeared to pump out chenodeoxycholate, since its intracellular accumulation increased more than twofold upon deenergization of the cytoplasmic membrane by a proton conductor. Growth inhibition by bile salts and accumulation levels of chenodeoxycholate increased when mutations inactivating the acrAB and emrAB gene clusters were introduced. The AcrAB system especially appeared to play a significant role in bile acid efflux. However, another efflux system(s) also plays an important role, since the accumulation level of chenodeoxycholate increased strongly upon deenergization of acrA emrB double mutant cells. Everted membrane vesicles accumulated taurocholate in an energy-dependent manner, apparently consuming delta pH without affecting delta psi. The efflux thus appears to be catalyzed by a proton antiporter. Accumulation by the everted membrane vesicles was not decreased by mutations in acr and emrB genes and presumably reflects activity of the unknown system seen in intact cells. It followed saturation kinetics with Vmax and Km values in the neighborhood of 0.3 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1) and 50 microM, respectively.  相似文献
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