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1.
Virulence genes in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
In recent years, the incidence of fungal infections has been rising all over the world. Although the amount of research in the field of pathogenic fungi has also increased, there is still a need for the identification of reliable determinants of virulence. In this review, we focus on identified Candida albicans genes whose deletant strains have been tested in experimental virulence assays. We discuss the putative relationship of these genes to virulence and also outline the use of new different systems to examine the precise effect in virulence of different genes.  相似文献
2.
Genetic changes in the population structure of brown trout Salmo trutta in the eastern Pyrenees were monitored during the 1990s. Stocking with cultivated exogenous fish has resulted in introgressed populations where those with higher introgression coefficients also have the highest values of heterozygosity. Nevertheless, this increase of local diversity reflects a decrease of genetic differentiation between populations and loss of native alleles. These changes obscure native gene pools and modify evolutionary distinctions among native brown trout populations.  相似文献
3.
Allozyme differentiation of bonito in the Mediterranean Sea   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Bonito Sarda sarda samples collected in three areas from the Mediterranean Sea exhibited considerable genetic heterogeneity over all locations. This provided preliminary evidence for two different groups of bonito, one for the Ligurian and the Ionian Seas and the other for the Aegean Sea.  相似文献
4.
1.  The brown trout ( Salmo trutta ) represents one of the main freshwater resources in Spain, but habitat alterations and overharvesting have contributed to the decline or disappearance of numerous natural populations. In addition, reinforcement programs of wild populations based on releases of hatchery reared fish of exogenous origin compromise the conservation of remnant native trout resources.
2.  We present allozymic data from Central Spain trout populations including stocked and unstocked populations. Although the levels of genetic variation observed were low and affected by hatchery releases (p = 18.23%, Ho= 3.39%), they were within the range observed in other European areas.
3.  The effective introduction of hatchery reared fish is genetically homogenising the populations in the studied area and disturbing the ancestral pattern of genetic variation that distinguishes the Tajo and Duero basins. Within the eight natural populations analysed, seven had alleles assigned to the foreign trout. The introgression in these populations, following the LDH-5 * 90 allele frequency, ranged between 2% and 29.4%, but those values are not in concordance with the respective stocking effort undertaken in each population. Moreover, the release of hatchery-reared fish does not solve the problems related to the reduced size of wild populations and their recruitment instability.  相似文献
5.
Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial DNA control region from 31 samples of the Eurasian otter, Lutra lutra , enabled us to establish the length and structure of this fragment, as well as to describe, for the first time, the RS3 repetitive region located at the 3' end. In addition, genetic variability of the 5' end was examined in 63 individuals, 57 of which were wild otters from the Iberian Peninsula and six captive reared otters. This analysis resulted in extremely low variability. All the samples from the Iberian Peninsula share a single haplotype, Lut 1, the most common haplotype in Europe. Captive otters showed two haplotypes: Lut 3, which has been described in wild otters from eastern Germany, and Lut 6, an haplotype not described to date. Higher variability was observed in the repetitive RS3 region. The tandem repeat was composed of an array of ten repeat units of 22 bp with differences in the repetitive motifs that differed in the arrays of different specimens. In total, 20 different haplotypes from 31 individuals were found. However, the geographical distribution of these haplotypes did not generate a phylogeographical signal. © 2005 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2005, 86 , 397–403.  相似文献
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H. Naveira  C. Pla  A. Fontdevila 《Genetica》1986,71(3):199-212
A new method for mapping gene differences between species is introduced. It is based on the asynapsis of homologous chromosomes in interspecific hybrids. Its validity has been investigated by comparing the pairing patterns of two Drosophila species and their hybrids, and by localizing on the chromosomes several diagnostic allozyme loci. The method can be used to map the genetic basis of any character exhibiting differences between species, although these species must fulfill some important conditions for the method to be applied with maximum efficiency.  相似文献
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Brown trout were collected from 36 locations inthe Iberian Peninsula representing thesouthwestern extreme of this species'distribution in Mediterranean drainages.Allelic distributions among these peripheralpopulations for 26 polymorphic allozyme loci(corrected to remove effects of introgressionfrom exogenous hatchery introductions)indicated a mosaic pattern both within andamong drainages. This distribution wasinterpreted to reflect reticular evolutionaryprocesses involving multiple colonizationepisodes by distinct lineages, secondaryintergradations, and drift. Under thisscenario, management to conserve native genepools differs from that commonly used underhierarchical structures (such as in AtlanticIberian drainages) where geographic patternscould justify regional stocking of indigenousfish in adjacent unsampled areas. Because suchaction risks erosion of native populations inthe present case, remedial efforts should focuson habitat recovery and environmental educationprograms, and harvest sustained by naturalreproduction.  相似文献
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