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1.
Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been shown to act as an inhibitor of apoptosis. We have also observed an inhibitory effect of HSP70 on apoptotic cell death both in preheated U937 and stably transfected HSP70-overexpressing U937 (U937/HSP70) cells. However, the molecular mechanism whereby HSP70 prevents apoptosis still remains to be solved. To address this issue, we investigated the effect of HSP70 on apoptotic processes in an in vitro system. Caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation were detected in cytosolic fractions from normal cells upon addition of dATP, but not from preheated U937 or U937/hsp70 cells. Moreover, the addition of purified recombinant HSP70 to normal cytosolic fractions prevented caspase-3 cleavage and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that HSP70 prevents apoptosis upstream of caspase-3 processing. Because cytochrome c was still released from mitochondria into the cytosol by lethal heat shock despite prevention of caspase-3 activation and cell death in both preheated U937 and U937/hsp70 cells, it was evident that HSP70 acts downstream of cytochrome c release. Results obtained in vitro with purified deletion mutants of HSP70 showed that the carboxyl one-third region (from amino acids 438 to 641) including the peptide-binding domain and the carboxyl-terminal EEVD sequence was essential to prevent caspase-3 processing. From these results, we conclude that HSP70 acts as a strong suppressor of apoptosis acting downstream of cytochrome c release and upstream of caspase-3 activation.  相似文献
2.
Staphylococcus aureus PS54 manifests no lipase (geh) activity. This is due to the insertion of bacteriophage L54a DNA into the geh structural gene. The nucleotide sequence of this 2,968-base-pair DNA fragment was determined. Lipase deduced from the nucleotide sequence is a polypeptide of 690 amino acids which extends from nucleotide 706 to 2776.  相似文献
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Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is the primary viral etiologic agent in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). However, individuals dually infected with both HHV8 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) show an enhanced prevalence of KS when compared with those singularly infected with HHV8. Host immune suppression conferred by HIV infection cannot wholly explain this increased presentation of KS. To better understand how HHV8 and HIV-1 might interact directly in the pathogenesis of KS, we queried for potential regulatory interactions between the two viruses. Here, we report that HHV8 and HIV-1 reciprocally up-regulate the gene expression of each other. We found that the KIE2 immediate-early gene product of HHV8 interacted synergistically with Tat in activating expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat. On the other hand, HIV-1 encoded Tat and Vpr proteins increased intracellular HHV8-specific expression. These results provide molecular insights correlating coinfection with HHV8 and HIV-1 with an unusually high incidence of KS.  相似文献
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Staphylococcus aureus PS54 harbors two temperate bacteriophages and manifests no lipase activity on egg yolk agar. Curing of one of the resident prophages (L54a) restores lipase activity. To study the mechanism of bacteriophage conversion, the prophage was cured, and the gene encoding lipase activity was cloned into pBR322 in Escherichia coli on a 2.9-kilobase DNA fragment of the chromosome. The fragment was subcloned into a shuttle vector and subsequently transformed into S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Lipase activity was expressed in all three genetic backgrounds. Transformation and transductional data indicated that conversion is due to insertional inactivation of the lipase gene. Hybridization analysis with probes made from converting-phage DNA and from the cloned fragment confirmed that the phage insertion site resides within the terminal 0.8 kilobase of the insert.  相似文献
7.
Tumor suppressor genes may represent an important new therapeutic modality in the treatment of human glioblastoma (GBM). p16(INK4A) is a tumor suppressor gene with mutation and/or deletion found in many human tumors, including glioblastomas, melanoma, and leukemias. RT-2 rat GBM cell line was used to investigate if the p16 gene induces dominant suppression of glioblastoma growth. Close to 100% of tumor cells were infected by high titer pCL retrovirus encoding the full-length human p16 cDNA at 5 m.o.i. Infected cells showed a 98% reduction in colony forming assay and a 60% reduction in growth curves in vitro compared to vector control. Exogenous overexpression of p16 induced hypophosphorylation of Rb protein by Western blot analysis. Intracranial injection of p16-infected tumor cells into syngeneic rats resulted in a 95% reduction in tumor volume compared to the controls. Intratumoral injection of p16 retrovirus resulted in tumor necrosis and prominent human p16 transgene expressions. Proliferation marker PCNA was not detected in these human p16-expressed RT-2 tumor cells, suggesting the cells were unable to enter into S phase after p16 expression. In addition, direct repeat intracranial injections of p16 retrovirus prolonged animal survival 3.2-fold compared to the controls (48.4 +/- 13.4 vs 15.0 +/- 2.1 days, p < 0.001). Two out of ten rats were found with dormant tumors at day 60 after p16 retrovirus injection. These results showed that p16 is effective in inhibiting GBM growth in situ. The mechanisms of tumor growth reduction and necrosis in vivo might be due to G1 arrest triggered by p16 expression.  相似文献
8.
The DNA encoding the exfoliative toxin A gene (eta) of Staphylococcus aureus was cloned into bacteriophage lambda gt11 and subsequently into plasmid pLI50 on a 1,391-base-pair DNA fragment of the chromosome. Exfoliative toxin A is expressed in the Escherichia coli genetic background, is similar in length to the toxin purified from culture medium, and is biologically active in an animal assay. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment containing the gene was determined. The protein deduced from the nucleotide sequence is a polypeptide of 280 amino acids. The mature protein is 242 amino acids. The DNA sequence of the exfoliative toxin B gene was also determined. Corrections indicate that the amino acid sequence of exfoliative toxin B is in accord with chemical sequence data.  相似文献
9.
Z H Ye  S L Buranen    C Y Lee 《Journal of bacteriology》1990,172(5):2568-2575
The DNA fragment encoding the integrase and excisionase genes involved in site-specific recombination of staphylococcal bacteriophage phi 11 was cloned and sequenced. The int and xis genes and the recombination site, attP, were highly clustered in a 1.7-kilobase DNA fragment with the gene order attP-int-xis. The int and xis genes were transcribed divergently, with the int gene transcribed toward the attp site and the xis gene transcribed away from the attP site. The deduced Int is a basic protein of 348 residues with an estimated molecular weight of 41,357. In contrast, the deduced Xis is an acidic protein containing 66 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 7,621. The site-specific recombination system of phi 11 was compared with that of a closely related bacteriophage, L54a.  相似文献
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