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A number of linear and conformation-dependent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) have been mapped to the first and second variable (V1 and V2) domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120. The majority of these MAbs are as effective at neutralizing HIV-1 infectivity as MAbs to the V3 domain and the CD4 binding site. The linear MAbs bind to amino acid residues 162 to 171, and changes at residues 183/184 (PI/SG) and 191/192/193 (YSL/GSS) within the V2 domain abrogate the binding of the two conformation-dependent MAbs, 11/68b and CRA-4, respectively. Surprisingly, a change at residue 435 (Y/H or Y/S), in a region of gp120 near the CD4 binding site (M. Kowalski, J. Potz, L. Basiripour, T. Dorfman, W. C. Goh, E. Terwilliger, A. Dayton, C. Rosen, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, Science 237:1351-1355, 1987; L. A. Lasky, G. M. Nakamura, D. H. Smith, C. Fennie, C. Shimasaki, E. Patzer, P. Berman, T. Gregory, and D. Capon, Cell 50:975-985, 1987; and U. Olshevsky, E. Helseth, C. Furman, J. Li, W. Haseltine, and J. Sodroski, J. Virol. 64:5701-5707, 1990), abrogated gp120 recognition by both of the conformation-dependent MAbs. However, both MAbs 11/68b and CRA-4 were able to bind to HIV-1 V1V2 chimeric fusion proteins expressing the V1V2 domains in the absence of C4, suggesting that residues in C4 are not components of the epitopes but that amino acid changes in C4 may affect the structure of the V1V2 domains. This is consistent with the ability of soluble CD4 to block 11/68b and CRA-4 binding to both native cell surface-expressed gp120 and recombinant gp120 and suggests that the binding of the neutralizing MAbs to the virus occurs prior to receptor interaction. Since the reciprocal inhibition, i.e., antibody inhibition of CD4-gp120 binding, was not observed, the mechanism of neutralization is probably not a blockade of virus-receptor interaction. Finally, we demonstrate that linear sequences from the V2 region are immunogenic in HIV-1-infected individuals, suggesting that the primary neutralizing response may be directed to both V2 and V3 epitopes.  相似文献
2.
A number of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) with various levels of neutralizing activity that recognize epitopes in the V1/V2 domain of LAI-related gp120s have been described. These include rodent antibodies directed against linear and conformational epitopes and a chimpanzee MAb, C108G, with extremely potent neutralizing activity directed against a glycan-dependent epitope. A fusion glycoprotein expression system that expressed the isolated V1/V2 domain of gp120 in native form was used to analyze the structural characteristics of these epitopes. A number of MAbs (C108G, G3-4, 684-238, SC258, 11/68b, 38/66a, 38/66c, 38/62c, and CRA3) that did not bind with high affinity to peptides immunoprecipitated a fusion glycoprotein expressing the V1/V2 domain of HXB2 gp120 in the absence of other human immunodeficiency virus sequences, establishing that their epitopes were fully specified within this region. Biochemical analyses indicated that in the majority of V1/V2 fusion molecules only five of the six glycosylation signals in the V1/V2 domain were utilized, and the glycoforms were found to be differentially recognized by particular MAbs. Both C108G and MAbs directed against conformational epitopes reacted with large fractions of the fully glycosylated molecules but with only small fractions of the incompletely glycosylated molecules. Mutational analysis of the V1 and V2 glycosylation signals indicated that in most cases the unutilized site was located either at position 156 or at position 160, suggesting the occurrence of competition for glycan addition at these neighboring positions. Mutation of glycosylation site 160 destroyed the C108G epitope but increased the fraction of the molecules that presented the conformational epitopes, while mutation of the highly conserved glycosylation site at position 156 greatly diminished the expression of the conformational epitopes and increased expression of the C108G epitope. Similar heterogeneity in glycosylation was also observed when the HXB2 V1/V2 fusion glycoprotein was expressed without most of the gp70 carrier protein, and thus, this appeared to be an intrinsic property of the V1/V2 domain. Heterogeneity in expression of conformational and glycan-dependent epitopes was also observed for the natural viral env precursor, gPr160, but not for gp120. These results suggested that the closely spaced glycosylation sites 156 and 160 are often alternatively utilized and that the pattern of glycosylation at these positions affects the formation of the conformational structures needed for both expression of native epitopes in this region and processing of gPr160 to mature env products.  相似文献
3.
Change in tropism upon immune escape by human immunodeficiency virus.   总被引:10,自引:7,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
The V3 loop of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is both a determinant of viral cell tropism and a target for neutralizing antibodies. This relationship was investigated. Selection of a dual-tropic (T cells and macrophages) virus to replicate in CD4+ brain cells results in loss of macrophage tropism and of neutralization by an anti-V3 loop monoclonal antibody. Moreover, selection of the brain-selected variant to escape from V3 loop-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies results in the reduction or loss of brain cell tropism and the reacquisition of macrophage tropism. These data may indicate that the antigenic diversification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 apparent after seroconversion can be selected either by immune responses or by colonization of new cell types.  相似文献
4.
We have identified six monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) mapping to both linear and conformation-dependent epitopes within the V2 region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clone HXB10. Three of the MAbs (12b, 66c, and 66a) were able to neutralize the molecular clones HXB10 and HXB2, with titers in the range of 9.5 to 20.0 micrograms/ml. MAbs mapping to the crown of the V2 loop (12b, 60b, and 74) bound poorly to cell surface-expressed oligomeric gp120, suggesting an explanation for the poor or negligible neutralizing activity of MAbs to this region. In contrast, MAbs 12b and 60b demonstrated good reactivity with recombinant gp120 in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay format, suggesting differential epitope exposure between the recombinant and native forms of gp120. Cross-competition analysis of these MAbs and additional V1V2 MAbs for gp120 binding enabled us to assign the MAbs to six groups (A to F). Selection of neutralization escape mutants with MAbs 10/76b and 11/68b, belonging to nonoverlapping competition groups, identified amino acid changes at residues 165 (I to T) and 185 (D to N), respectively. Interestingly, these escape variants remained sensitive to neutralization by the nonselecting V2 MAbs. All MAbs demonstrated good recognition of IIIB viral gp120 yet failed to neutralize nonclonal stocks of IIIB. In addition, MAbs 12b and 62c bound MN and RF viral gp120, respectively, yet failed to neutralize the respective isolates. Cloning and expression of a library of gp120 and V1V2 fragments from IIIB-, MN-, and RF-infected H9 cultures identified a number of polymorphic sites, resulting in antigenic variation and subsequent loss of V2 MAb recognition. In contrast, the V3 region from the clones of the same isolates showed no amino acid changes, suggesting that the V2 region is polymorphic in long-term-passaged laboratory isolates and may account for the reduced antibody recognition observed.  相似文献
5.
Eleven rat monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize the SU glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) ROD were produced and characterized. Binding sites for eight of these MAbs were mapped to epitopes within the Cl, V1/V2, C2, and V3 envelope regions. The three other MAbs defined at least two conformation-dependent, strain-specific epitopes outside Vl/V2, V3, and the CD4-binding site. The MAbs were used to probe the tertiary structure of oligomeric envelope glycoprotein expressed on the surfaces of infected cells. Epitopes at the apices of V2 and V3 were exposed on the native molecule, whereas other epitopes on V1/V2, Cl, and C2 were hidden. The MAbs defined three neutralization targets on exposed domains: two linear epitopes in the V2 and the V3 loops and one conformational epitope outside V1, V2, and V3.  相似文献
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