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排序方式: 共有1018条查询结果,搜索用时 93 毫秒
1.
High-efficiency transformation of mammalian cells by plasmid DNA.   总被引:649,自引:121,他引:528       下载免费PDF全文
We describe a simple calcium phosphate transfection protocol and neo marker vectors that achieve highly efficient transformation of mammalian cells. In this protocol, the calcium phosphate-DNA complex is formed gradually in the medium during incubation with cells and precipitates on the cells. The crucial factors for obtaining efficient transformation are the pH (6.95) of the buffer used for the calcium phosphate precipitation, the CO2 level (3%) during the incubation of the DNA with the cells, and the amount (20 to 30 micrograms) and the form (circular) of DNA. In sharp contrast to the results with circular DNA, linear DNA is almost inactive. Under these conditions, 50% of mouse L(A9) cells can be stably transformed with pcDneo, a simian virus 40-based neo (neomycin resistance) marker vector. The NIH3T3, C127, CV1, BHK, CHO, and HeLa cell lines were transformed at efficiencies of 10 to 50% with this vector and the neo marker-incorporated pcD vectors that were used for the construction and transduction of cDNA expression libraries as well as for the expression of cloned cDNA in mammalian cells.  相似文献
2.
A uniform system for microRNA annotation   总被引:57,自引:1,他引:56  
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA gene products about 22 nt long that are processed by Dicer from precursors with a characteristic hairpin secondary structure. Guidelines are presented for the identification and annotation of new miRNAs from diverse organisms, particularly so that miRNAs can be reliably distinguished from other RNAs such as small interfering RNAs. We describe specific criteria for the experimental verification of miRNAs, and conventions for naming miRNAs and miRNA genes. Finally, an online clearinghouse for miRNA gene name assignments is provided by the Rfam database of RNA families.  相似文献
3.
The amino-terminal amino acid sequences of the pili proteins from four antigenically dissimilar strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, from Neisseria meningiditis, and from Escherichia coli were determined. Although antibodies raised to the pili protein from a given strain of gonococcus cross-reacted poorly or not at all with each of the other strains tested, the amino-terminal sequences were all identical. The meningococcal protein sequence was also identical with the gonococcal sequence through 29 residues, and this sequence was highly homologous to the sequence of the pili protein of Moraxella nonliquifaciens determined by other workers. However, the sequence of the pili protein from E. coli showed no similarity to the other sequences. The gonococcal and meningococcal proteins have an unusual amino acid at the amino termini, N-methylphenylalanine. In addition, the first 24 residues of these proteins have only two hydrophilic residues (at positions 2 and 5) with the rest being predominantly aliphatic hydrophobic amino acids. The preservation of this highly unusual sequence among five antigenically dissimilar Neisseria pili proteins implies a role for the amino-terminal structure in pilus function. The amino terminus may be directly or indirectly (through preservation of tertiary structure) important for the pilus function of facilitating attachment of bacteria to human cells.  相似文献
4.
Stimulation of adenyl cyclase by Escherichia coli enterotoxin   总被引:55,自引:0,他引:55  
5.
The role of cis- and trans-acting elements in the expression of HIS4 has been examined by using HIS4-lacZ fusions in which lacZ expression is dependent upon the HIS4 5' noncoding region. The cis-acting sequences involved in regulation were defined by studying the effects of the wild-type and various deletions and their revertants on regulation via the general control of amino acid biosynthesis. The role of trans-acting genes was analyzed by studying the regulation of the HIS4-lacZ fusions in strains carrying mutations in the GCN (AAS) or GCD (TRA) genes and in strains carrying the GCN genes on high-copy-number plasmids. These studies have led to the following conclusions. (i) HIS4 is positively regulated by the general control. (ii) At least one copy of the 5'TGACTC3' repeat at -136 is required in cis for this regulation. (iii) Both the GCN4 gene and at least one copy of the repeated sequence are required for expression at the repressed level. (iv) The open reading frames in the 5' noncoding region are not required in either cis or trans for the regulation of HIS4.  相似文献
6.
The requirements for transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts (REFs) by transfected ras and myc oncogenes were explored. Under conditions of dense monolayer culture, neither oncogene was able to transform REFs on its own. However, the introduction of a ras oncogene together with a selectable neomycin resistance marker into REFs allowed killing of the normal nontransfected cells and the outgrowth of colonies of ras transformants, 10% of which survived crisis and became tumorigenic. These cells expressed greater than 10-fold-higher levels of ras p21 than tumorigenic cells cotransfected with ras and myc oncogenes. The myc oncogene similarly was unable to induce tumorigenic conversion of REFs unless especially refractile colonies of oncogene-bearing cells, produced by use of a cotransfected selectable marker, were picked and subcultured. Tumorigenic conversion of REFs by single transfected oncogenes appears to require special culture conditions and high levels of gene expression.  相似文献
7.
The angiogenic inducers cysteine-rich angiogenic protein 61 (Cyr61) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are structurally related, extracellular matrix-associated heparin-binding proteins. Both can stimulate chemotaxis and promote proliferation in endothelial cells and fibroblasts in culture and induce neovascularization in vivo. Encoded by inducible immediate early genes, Cyr61 and CTGF are synthesized upon growth factor stimulation in cultured fibroblasts and during cutaneous wound healing in dermal fibroblasts. Recently, we have shown that adhesion of primary human fibroblasts to immobilized Cyr61 is mediated through integrin alpha(6)beta(1) and cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) (Chen, N., Chen, C.-C., and Lau, L.F. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 24953-24961), providing the first demonstration of an absolute requirement for HSPGs in integrin-mediated cell attachment. We show in this study that CTGF also mediates fibroblast adhesion through the same mechanism and demonstrate that fibroblasts adhesion to immobilized Cyr61 or CTGF induces distinct adhesive signaling responses consistent with their biological activities. Compared with fibroblast adhesion to fibronectin, laminin, or type I collagen, cell adhesion to Cyr61 or CTGF induces 1) more extensive and prolonged formation of filopodia and lamellipodia, concomitant with formation of integrin alpha(6)beta(1)-containing focal complexes localized at leading edges of pseudopods; 2) activation of intracellular signaling molecules including focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, and Rac with similar rapid kinetics; 3) sustained activation of p42/p44 MAPKs lasting for at least 9 h; and 4) prolonged gene expression changes including up-regulation of MMP-1 (collagenase-1) and MMP-3 (stromelysin-1) mRNAs and proteins sustained for at least 24 h. Together, these results establish Cyr61 and CTGF as bona fide adhesive substrates with specific signaling capabilities, provide a molecular basis for their activities in fibroblasts through integrin alpha(6)beta(1) and HSPG-mediated signaling during attachment and indicate that these proteins may function in matrix remodeling through the activation of metalloproteinases during angiogenesis and wound healing.  相似文献
8.
The cysteine protease caspase-3 may be involved in the mechanism of cell death following seizures. Using a rat model of focally evoked limbic epilepsy with continuous electroencephalography monitoring, we investigated seizure-induced changes in caspase-3 protein expression and processing, enzyme activity, and the in vivo effect of caspase-3 inhibition. Seizures were induced by intraamygdaloid injection of kainic acid (0.1 microg) and were terminated after 45 min by diazepam (30 mg/kg) administration. Animals were killed 0-72 h following diazepam administration. Levels of the 32-kDa proenzyme form of caspase-3 were unaffected by seizures. Levels of the 17-kDa cleaved (active) fragment of caspase-3 were almost undetectable in control brain, but were increased significantly at 4 and 24 h within ipsilateral hippocampus and cortex in seizure animals. Caspase-3-like protease activity was increased within the ipsilateral hippocampus at 8 and 24 h following seizures. Caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased within the vulnerable ipsilateral CA3/CA4 subfield at 24 and 72 h following seizures and was associated predominantly, but not exclusively, with neurons exhibiting DNA fragmentation. The putatively selective caspase-3 inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp(OMe)-Glu(OMe)-Val-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone significantly improved neuronal survival bilaterally within the hippocampal CA3/CA4 subfields following seizures. Collectively, these data suggest that caspase-3 may play a significant role in the mechanism by which neurons die following seizures.  相似文献
9.
Caspase-3 mediated neuronal death after traumatic brain injury in rats   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34  
During programmed cell death, activation of caspase-3 leads to proteolysis of DNA repair proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, and the inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease, culminating in morphologic changes and DNA damage defining apoptosis. The participation of caspase-3 activation in the evolution of neuronal death after traumatic brain injury in rats was examined. Cleavage of pro-caspase-3 in cytosolic cellular fractions and an increase in caspase-3-like enzyme activity were seen in injured brain versus control. Cleavage of the caspase-3 substrates DNA-dependent protein kinase and inhibitor of caspase-activated deoxyribonuclease and co-localization of cytosolic caspase-3 in neurons with evidence of DNA fragmentation were also identified. Intracerebral administration of the caspase-3 inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (480 ng) after trauma reduced caspase-3-like activity and DNA fragmentation in injured brain versus vehicle at 24 h. Treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone for 72 h (480 ng/day) reduced contusion size and ipsilateral dorsal hippocampal tissue loss at 3 weeks but had no effect on functional outcome versus vehicle. These data demonstrate that caspase-3 activation contributes to brain tissue loss and downstream biochemical events that execute programmed cell death after traumatic brain injury. Caspase inhibition may prove efficacious in the treatment of certain types of brain injury where programmed cell death occurs.  相似文献
10.
Deng L  Wang C  Spencer E  Yang L  Braun A  You J  Slaughter C  Pickart C  Chen ZJ 《Cell》2000,103(2):351-361
TRAF6 is a signal transducer in the NF-kappaB pathway that activates IkappaB kinase (IKK) in response to proinflammatory cytokines. We have purified a heterodimeric protein complex that links TRAF6 to IKK activation. Peptide mass fingerprinting analysis reveals that this complex is composed of the ubiquitin conjugating enzyme Ubc13 and the Ubc-like protein Uev1A. We find that TRAF6, a RING domain protein, functions together with Ubc13/Uev1A to catalyze the synthesis of unique polyubiquitin chains linked through lysine-63 (K63) of ubiquitin. Blockade of this polyubiquitin chain synthesis, but not inhibition of the proteasome, prevents the activation of IKK by TRAF6. These results unveil a new regulatory function for ubiquitin, in which IKK is activated through the assembly of K63-linked polyubiquitin chains.  相似文献
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