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Towards proteome-wide production of monoclonal antibody by phage display   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Sequencing of the human genome reveals that there are approximately 30,000 genes that encode an even greater number of proteins which comprise the human proteome. Characterization of gene products at the genome-wide scale requires the development of high throughput methods to generate temporo-spatial information on each and every protein in the cell under normal and pathological conditions. Monoclonal antibodies are important reagents for these studies. We have developed a method to generate human monoclonal antibodies by selecting phage antibody libraries directly on antigen blotted onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes. Cellular proteins are first separated by two dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, Western blotted onto poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, and used to select phage antibody libraries. Monoclonal antibodies can be generated against individual protein spots on a 2D gel. The antibodies are functional in Western blotting, ELISA, and immunohistochemistry. Automation of this process should allow high throughput production of monoclonal phage antibodies against cellular proteins as well as proteins that are uniquely expressed under pathological conditions.  相似文献
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The nuclear pore complex (NPC) gates the only known conduit for molecular exchange between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Macromolecular transport across the NPC is mediated by nucleocytoplasmic shuttling receptors termed karyopherins (Kaps). Kaps interact with NPC proteins (nucleoporins) that contain FG peptide repeats (FG Nups) and altogether carry hundreds of different cargoes across the NPC. Previously we described a biochemical strategy to identify proteins that interact with individual components of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. We used bacterially expressed fusions of glutathione S-transferase with nucleoporins or karyopherins as bait to capture interacting proteins from yeast extracts. Forty-five distinct proteins were identified as binding to one or several FG Nups and Kaps. Most of the detected interactions were expected, such as Kap-Nup interactions, but others were unexpected, such as the interactions of the multisubunit Nup84p complex with several of the FG Nups. Also unexpected were the interactions of various FG Nups with the nucleoporins Nup2p and Nup133p, the Gsp1p-GTPase-activating protein Rna1p, and the mRNA-binding protein Pab1p. Here we resolve how these interactions occur. We show that Pab1p associates nonspecifically with immobilized baits via RNA. More interestingly, we demonstrate that the Nup84p complex contains Nup133p as a subunit and binds to the FG repeat regions of Nups directly via the Nup85p subunit. Binding of Nup85p to the GLFG region of Nup116p was quantified in vitro (K(D) = 1.5 micro M) and was confirmed in vivo using the yeast two-hybrid assay. We also demonstrate that Nup2p and Rna1p can be tethered directly to FG Nups via the importin Kap95p-Kap60p and the exportin Crm1p, respectively. We discuss possible roles of these novel interactions in the mechanisms of nucleocytoplasmic transport.  相似文献
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Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (B2AR) play a fundamental role in receptor regulation by agonists. We have examined the effects of several agonists on net levels of B2AR palmitoylation and phosphorylation using epitope tagging in stably transfected human embryonal kidney (HEK) 293 cells, immunoaffinity purification, and mass spectrometry combined with the method of stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC). Palmitoylation of Cys341 was confirmed and did not change detectably after 30 min exposure of cells to saturating concentrations of dopamine, epinephrine, or isoproterenol. However, all of these agonists produced a marked increase in net phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of the third cytoplasmic loop was increased to a similar degree by all three agonists, whereas differences between agonists were observed in net phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain (isoproterenol approximately epinephrine > dopamine). Interestingly, agonist-induced phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain was observed exclusively in a proximal portion (between residues 339-369). None of the agonists produced detectable phosphorylation in a distal portion of the cytoplasmic tail, which contains all sites of agonist-induced phosphorylation identified previously by in vitro reconstitution. These results provide insight to agonist-dependent regulation of the B2AR in intact cells, suggest the existence of significant differences in regulatory phosphorylation events occurring between in vitro and in vivo conditions, and outline a general analytical approach to investigate regulated PTM of receptors in mammalian cells.  相似文献
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Given the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in the world, the search for genetic variations that impact risk factors associated with the development of this disease continues. Multiple genetic association studies demonstrate that procollagen C-proteinase enhancer 2 (PCPE2) modulates HDL levels. Recent studies revealed an unexpected role for this protein in the proteolytic processing of pro-apolipoprotein (apo) A-I by enhancing the cleavage of the hexapeptide extension present at the N-terminus of apoA-I. To investigate the role of the PCPE2 protein in an in vivo model, PCPE2-deficient (PCPE2 KO) mice were examined, and a detailed characterization of plasma lipid profiles, apoA-I, HDL speciation, and function was done. Results of isoelectric focusing (IEF) electrophoresis together with the identification of the amino terminal peptides DEPQSQWDK and WHVWQQDEPQSQWDVK, representing mature apoA-I and pro-apoA-I, respectively, in serum from PCPE2 KO mice confirmed that PCPE2 has a role in apoA-I maturation. Lipid profiles showed a marked increase in plasma apoA-I and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in PCPE2 KO mice compared with wild-type littermates, regardless of gender or diet. Changes in HDL particle size and electrophoretic mobility observed in PCPE2 KO mice suggest that the presence of pro-apoA-I impairs the maturation of HDL. ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux is defective in PCPE2 KO mice, suggesting that the functionality of HDL is altered.  相似文献
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