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1.
A collection of 196 spontaneous mutations in the SUP4-o gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The classes of mutation identified included all possible types of base-pair substitution, deletions of various lengths, complex alterations involving multiple changes, and insertions of transposable elements. Our findings demonstrate that at least several different mechanisms are responsible for spontaneous mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae.  相似文献
2.
Development of a yeast system to assay mutational specificity   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
We have developed a system wherein DNA alterations occurring in a target gene in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be determined by DNA sequencing. The target gene, SUP4-o, an ochre suppressor allele of a yeast tyrosine tRNA gene, has been inserted into a shuttle vector (YCpMP2) which is maintained in yeast at a copy number of one per cell Mutations in SUP4-o are selected by virtue of their inactivation of suppressor activity. Rapid DNA preparations from these mutants are used to transform an appropriate bacterial strain. Since YCpMP2 also carries the M13 phage replication origin, superinfection of bacterial cells containing the plasmid with wild-type M13 phage yields single stranded YCpMP2 DNA suitable for dideoxynucleotide chain termination sequencing. We have used this system to examine mutations arising spontaneously in the SUP4-o gene. The spontaneous mutants occurred at a frequency of 3.2 X 10(-6)/viable cell, corresponding to a rate of 2.7 X 10(-7) events/cell division. Following bacterial transformation, 16% of the recovered plasmids tested displayed altered gel mobility consistent with loss of significant portions of the plasmid. Hybridization analysis of total yeast DNA and use of purified YCpMP2 revealed that these very large deletions were not generated in yeast but were associated with bacterial transformation. Among the SUP4-o mutants analyzed by DNA sequencing, we identified each type of single base pair substitution (transitions and transversions), small deletions of varying length (1-32 base pairs) and more extensive deletions of undetermined size. These results demonstrate that the SUP4-o system can be used to detect various types of mutation at numerous sites in a single eukaryotic gene and to characterize the DNA sequence changes responsible for the mutations selected.  相似文献
3.
Defects in the RAD52 gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae confer a mutator phenotype. To characterize this effect in detail, a collection of 238 spontaneous SUP4-o mutations arising in a strain having a disrupted RAD52 gene was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The resulting mutational spectrum was compared to that derived from an examination of 222 spontaneous mutations selected in a nearisogenic wild-type (RAD52) strain. This comparison revealed that the mutator phenotype was associated with an increase in the frequency of base-pair substitutions. All possible types of substitution were detected but there was a reduction in the relative fraction of A.T----G.C transitions and an increase in the proportion of G.C----C.G transversions. These changes were sufficient to cause a twofold greater preference for substitutions at G.C sites in the rad52 strain despite a decrease in the fraction of G.C----T.A transversions. There were also considerable differences between the distributions of substitutions within the SUP4-o gene. Base-pair changes occurred at fewer sites in the rad52 strain but the mutated sites included several that were not detected in the RAD52 background. Only two of the four sites that were mutated most frequently in the rad52 strain were also prominent in the wild-type strain and mutation frequencies at almost all sites common to both strains were greater for the rad52 derivative. Although single base-pair deletions occurred in the two strains with similar frequencies, several classes of mutation that were recovered in the wild-type background including multiple base-pair deletions, insertions of the yeast transposable element Ty, and more complex changes, were not detected in the rad52 strain.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
4.
Genetic and biochemical consequences of thymidylate stress   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
We have examined the genetic and biochemical consequences of thymidylate stress in haploid and diploid strains of the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers' yeast). Previously we reported that inhibition of dTMP biosynthesis causes "thymineless death" and is highly recombinagenic, but apparently not mutagenic, at the nuclear level; however, it is mutagenic for mitochondria. Concurrent provision of dTMP abolishes these effects. Conversely, excess dTMP is highly mutagenic for nuclear genes. It is likely that DNA strand breaks are responsible for the recombinagenic effects of thymidylate deprivation; such breaks could be produced by reiterative uracil incorporation and excision in DNA repair patches. In our experiments, thymidylate stress was produced both by starving dTMP auxotrophs for the required nucleotide and also by blocking de novo synthesis of thymidylate by various antimetabolites. We found that the antifolate methotrexate is a potent inducer of mitotic recombination (both gene conversion and mitotic crossing-over). This suggests that the gene amplification associated with methotrexate resistance in mammalian cells could arise, in part, by unequal sister-chromatid exchange induced by thymidylate stress. In addition, several sulfa drugs, which impede de novo folate biosynthesis, also have considerable recombinagenic activity.  相似文献
5.
Disruption of RAD1, a gene controlling excision repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, increased the frequency of spontaneous forward mutation in a plasmid-borne copy of the SUP4-o gene. To characterize this effect in detail, a collection of 249 SUP4-o mutations arising spontaneously in the rad1 strain was analyzed by DNA sequencing. The resulting mutational spectrum was compared with that derived from an examination of 322 spontaneous SUP4-o mutations selected in an isogenic wild-type (RAD1) strain. This comparison revealed that the rad1 mutator phenotype was associated with increases in the frequencies of single-base-pair substitution, single-base-pair deletion, and insertion of the yeast retrotransposon Ty. In the rad1 strain, the relative fractions of these events and their distributions within SUP4-o exhibited features similar to those for spontaneous mutagenesis in the isogenic RAD1 background. The increase in the frequency of Ty insertion argues that Ty transposition can be activated by unrepaired spontaneous DNA damage, which normally would be removed by excision repair. We discuss the possibilities that either translesion synthesis, a reduced fidelity of DNA replication, or a deficiency in mismatch correction might be responsible for the majority of single-base-pair events in the rad1 strain.  相似文献
6.
A total of 318 forward mutations induced by ethylmethanesulphonate (EMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in the SUP4-o gene of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was characterized by DNA sequence analysis. Only base-pair substitutions were detected among the mutations examined and, for both agents, the majority (greater than 96%) were G.C to A.T. transitions. The remaining changes included A.T to G.C transitions and transversions at G.C sites. For EMS, two of the transversions were accompanied by nearby G.C to A.T transitions. There was considerable overlap of the sites within the SUP4-o gene that were mutated by EMS and MNNG and of the sites that each agent failed to mutate. However, EMS and MNNG mutagenesis differed with respect to the frequencies at which mutations were recovered at G.C pairs where the guanine is flanked (5') by a purine or pyrimidine. EMS exhibited no preference for either type of site, whereas a G.C site was 12-fold or fivefold more likely to be mutated by MNNG if preceded by a 5' adenine or guanine, respectively, than if flanked by a 5' pyrimidine. Finally, neither EMS nor MNNG mutagenesis showed a preference for G.C sites having the guanine on the non-transcribed strand.  相似文献
7.
Disruption of the dCMP deaminase (DCD1) gene, or provision of excess dTMP to a nucleotide-permeable strain, produced dramatic increases in the dCTP or dTTP pools, respectively, in growing cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The mutation rate of the SUP4-o gene was enhanced 2-fold by the dCTP imbalance and 104-fold by the dTTP imbalance. 407 SUP4-o mutations that arose under these conditions, and 334 spontaneous mutations recovered in an isogenic strain having balanced DNA precursor levels, were characterized by DNA sequencing and the resulting mutational spectra were compared. Significantly more (greater than 98%) of the changes resulting from nucleotide pool imbalance were single base-pair events, the majority of which could have been due to misinsertion of the nucleotides present in excess. Unexpectedly, expanding the dCTP pool did not increase the fraction of A.T----G.C transitions relative to the spontaneous value nor did enlarging the dTTP pool enhance the proportion of G.C----A.T transitions. Instead, the elevated levels of dCTP or dTTP were associated primarily with increases in the fractions of G.C----C.G or A.T----T.A. transversions, respectively. Furthermore, T----C, and possibly A----C, events occurred preferentially in the dcd1 strain at sites where dCTP was to be inserted next. C----T and A----T events were induced most often by dTMP treatment at sites where the next correct nucleotide was dTTP or dGTP (dGTP levels were also elevated by dTMP treatment). Finally, misinsertion of dCTP or dTTP did not exhibit a strand bias. Collectively, our data suggest that increased levels of dCTP and dTTP induced mutations in yeast via nucleotide misinsertion and inhibition of proofreading but indicate that other factors must also be involved. We consider several possibilities, including potential roles for the regulation and specificity of proofreading and for mismatch correction.  相似文献
8.
B. A. Kunz  G. R. Taylor    R. H. Haynes 《Genetics》1986,114(2):375-392
The biosynthesis of thymidylate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can be inhibited by antifolate drugs. We have found that antifolate treatment enhances the formation of leucine prototrophs in a haploid strain of yeast carrying, on the same chromosome, two different mutant leu2 alleles separated by Escherichia coli plasmid sequences. That this effect is a consequence of thymine nucleotide depletion was verified by the finding that provision of exogenous thymidylate eliminates the increased production of Leu+ colonies. DNA hybridization analysis revealed that recombination, including reciprocal exchange, gene conversion and unequal sister-chromatid crossing over, between the duplicated genes gave rise to the induced Leu+ segregants. Although gene conversion unaccompanied by crossing over was responsible for the major fraction of leucine prototrophs, events involving reciprocal exchange exhibited the largest increase in frequency. These data show that recombination is induced between directly repeated DNA sequences under conditions of thymine nucleotide depletion. In addition, the results of this and previous studies are consistent with the possibility that inhibition of thymidylate biosynthesis in yeast may create a metabolic condition that provokes all forms of mitotic recombination.  相似文献
9.
Inactivation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD18 gene confers a mutator phenotype. To determine the specificity of this effect, a collection of 212 spontaneous SUP4-o mutants arising in a rad18 strain was characterized by DNA sequencing. Comparison of the resulting mutational spectrum with that for an isogenic wild-type (RAD18) strain revealed that the rad18 mutator specifically enhanced the frequency of single base pair substitutions. Further analysis indicated that an increase in the frequency of G.C----T.A transversions accounted for the elevated SUP4-o mutation frequency. Thus, rad18 is the first eucaryotic mutator found to generate only a particular base pair substitution. The majority of G.C pairs that were not mutated in the rad18 background were at sites where G.C----T.A events can be detected in SUP4-o, suggesting that DNA sequence context influences the rad18 mutator effect. Transformation of heteroduplex plasmid DNAs into the two strains demonstrated that the rad18 mutator did not reduce the efficiency of correcting G-A or C-T mismatches to G.C pairs or preferentially correct the mismatches to A.T pairs. We propose that the RAD18 gene product might contribute to the fidelity of DNA replication in S. cerevisiae by involvement in a process that serves to limit the formation of G-A and C-T mismatches at template guanine and cytosine sites during DNA synthesis.  相似文献
10.
Frequency curves for UV-induced mitotic recombination often are linear at low doses. As dose increases, these curves either increase at higher powers of dose and/or reach a maximum induced frequency and then decline. Similar dose-response patterns have been observed previously for mutation. The non-linearities can arise from higher order effects inherent in the molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis and/or from 'delta-effects' (Eckardt and Haynes, 1977a), i.e., differential probabilities of clone formation for mutant and non-mutant cells. Previously, we have shown that one can distinguish between these two possibilities by plotting the ratio of the induced mutant yield to the linear component of frequency as a function of dose (Haynes et al., 1985). In this study, we have used this ratio, a quantity we call 'apparent survival', to analyse the non-linear regions of the dose-response curves for UV-induced mitotic crossing-over and gene conversion in wild-type (RAD) and excision-repair-deficient (rad3) strains of yeast. Plots of apparent survival versus dose reveal the existence of a positive, non-linear component associated with UV-induced gene conversion in RAD, but not rad3, cells. A high dose decline in frequency, which is observed for UV-induced recombination in both strains, can be attributed to delta-effects.  相似文献
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