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1.
A technique for conveniently radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity is described. DNA fragments are purified from agarose gels directly by ethanol precipitation and are then denatured and labeled with the large fragment of DNA polymerase I, using random oligonucleotides as primers. Over 70% of the precursor triphosphate is routinely incorporated into complementary DNA, and specific activities of over 10(9) dpm/microgram of DNA can be obtained using relatively small amounts of precursor. These "oligolabeled" DNA fragments serve as efficient probes in filter hybridization experiments.  相似文献
2.
A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis   总被引:413,自引:0,他引:413  
E R Fearon  B Vogelstein 《Cell》1990,61(5):759-767
3.
p53 function and dysfunction.   总被引:167,自引:0,他引:167  
B Vogelstein  K W Kinzler 《Cell》1992,70(4):523-526
4.
p53 functions as a cell cycle control protein in osteosarcomas.   总被引:103,自引:35,他引:68       下载免费PDF全文
Mutations in the p53 gene have been associated with a wide range of human tumors, including osteosarcomas. Although it has been shown that wild-type p53 can block the ability of E1a and ras to cotransform primary rodent cells, it is poorly understood why inactivation of the p53 gene is important for tumor formation. We show that overexpression of the gene encoding wild-type p53 blocks the growth of osteosarcoma cells. The growth arrest was determined to be due to an inability of the transfected cells to progress into S phase. This suggests that the role of the p53 gene as an antioncogene may be in controlling the cell cycle in a fashion analogous to the check-point control genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  相似文献
5.
Purification of DNA from formaldehyde fixed and paraffin embedded human tissue   总被引:71,自引:0,他引:71  
The ability to isolate DNA from preserved human tissues would provide numerous experimental opportunities. In this report it is shown that DNA can be extracted from tissues prepared for routine histopathological examination (i.e., fixed with formaldehyde and embedded in paraffin). Although the extracted DNA is not intact, it is double stranded, cleavable with restriction endonucleases, and suitable for a variety of standard techniques used in molecular biology.  相似文献
6.
Cell cycle checkpoints can enhance cell survival and limit mutagenic events following DNA damage. Primary murine fibroblasts became deficient in a G1 checkpoint activated by ionizing radiation (IR) when both wild-type p53 alleles were disrupted. In addition, cells from patients with the radiosensitive, cancer-prone disease ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) lacked the IR-induced increase in p53 protein levels seen in normal cells. Finally, IR induction of the human GADD45 gene, an induction that is also defective in AT cells, was dependent on wild-type p53 function. Wild-type but not mutant p53 bound strongly to a conserved element in the GADD45 gene, and a p53-containing nuclear factor, which bound this element, was detected in extracts from irradiated cells. Thus, we identified three participants (AT gene(s), p53, and GADD45) in a signal transduction pathway that controls cell cycle arrest following DNA damage; abnormalities in this pathway probably contribute to tumor development.  相似文献
7.
The DNA from a wide variety of human tumors has sustained mutations within the conserved p53 coding regions. We have purified wild-type and tumor-derived mutant p53 proteins expressed from baculovirus vectors and examined their interactions with SV40 DNA. Using DNAase I footprinting assays, we observed that both human and murine wild-type p53 proteins bind specifically to sequences adjacent to the late border of the viral replication origin. By contrast, mutant p53 proteins failed to bind specifically to these sequences. SV40 T antigen prevented wild-type p53 from interacting with this region. These data show that normal but not oncogenic forms of p53 are capable of sequence-specific interactions with viral DNA. Furthermore, they provide insights into the mechanisms by which viral proteins might regulate the control of viral growth and cell division.  相似文献
8.
The majority of the p53 genes derived from human colorectal carcinomas contain point mutations. A significant number of these mutations occur in or around amino acids 143, 175, 273, or 281. Experiments presented here demonstrate for the first time that p53 DNA clones containing any one of these mutations cooperate with the activated ras oncogene to transform primary rat embryo cells in culture. These transformed cells produce elevated levels of the human p53 protein, which has extended half-lives (1.5-7 h), as compared to the wild-type human p53 protein (20-30 min). The p53 mutant with an alteration at residue 175 (p53-175H) binds tightly to the cellular heat shock protein, hsc70. In contrast, the p53 mutants possessing mutations at either residue 273 or 281 (p53-273H/281G) do not bind detectably to this heat shock protein and generally are less efficient at forming transformed foci in culture. The transformed cell lines are tumorigenic in nude mice. Thus, two classes of p53 mutant proteins can be distinguished: p53-175H, which cooperates with ras efficiently and binds to hsc70, and p53-273H/281G, which has a reduced efficiency of transformed foci formation and does not bind hsc70. This demonstrates that complex formation between mutant p53 and hsc70 is not required for p53-mediated transformation, but rather it facilitates this function, perhaps by ensuring sequestration of the endogenous wild-type p53 protein. The positive effect on cell proliferation by these mutant p53 proteins is consistent with a role for activated p53 mutants in the genesis of colorectal carcinomas.  相似文献
9.
10.
The GLI gene is amplified in a subset of human tumors and encodes a protein product with five zinc finger DNA-binding motifs. In this study, we show that the GLI gene product has a predominantly nuclear localization and binds DNA in a sequence-specific fashion. Three GLI binding sites were identified by using a novel procedure in which total human DNA was bound to a GLI recombinant fusion protein, and the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify and recover the bound sequences. The GLI protein protected a 23- to 24-base region within all three binding sites, and the protected region in each case included the 9-base-pair sequence 5'-GACCACCCA-3'. One of the binding sites was contained within a 63-base-pair repeat of the variable number of tandem repeat type, whereas the other two sites were represented once in the genome. The approach used here to identify GLI binding sites should be applicable to the characterization of other zinc finger proteins.  相似文献
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