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1.
We have probed the structure of the C4 and V3 domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 by immunochemical techniques. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing an exposed gp120 sequence, (E/K)VGKAMYAPP, in C4 were differentially sensitive to denaturation of gp120, implying a conformational component to some of the epitopes. The MAbs recognizing conformation-sensitive C4 structures failed to bind to a gp120 mutant with an alteration in the sequence of the V3 loop, and their binding to gp120 was inhibited by both V3 and C4 MAbs. This implies an interaction between the V3 and C4 regions of gp120, which is supported by the observation that the binding of some MAbs to the V3 loop was often enhanced by amino acid changes in an around the C4 region.  相似文献
2.
Antiviral innate immunity pathways   总被引:27,自引:0,他引:27  
Seth RB  Sun L  Chen ZJ 《Cell research》2006,16(2):141-147
3.
Huang W  Yao B  Sun L  Pu R  Wang L  Zhang R 《Life sciences》2001,68(15):1727-1734
GnRH(LH-RH) is first discovered in the hypothalamus and found to have a role in regulation of reproduction. With the study on it deepening, GnRH was demonnstrated that it also exists in a number of organs beyond the hypothalamus and acts on extrapituitary organs. To study whether digestive tract synthesizes GnRH and its receptor and, if it does, by what cells. In the experiment, the locallizations of GnRH and its receptors in rat digestive tract were studied using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. The parietal cells of gastric gland, the villous and glandular epithelium in small and large intestine and parasympathetic ganglion cells of myenteric plexus showed GnRH immunoreactivity; GnRH mRNA hybridization signal was detected. The epithelium of gastric pit and the cells above in digestive tract showed GnRH receptor immunoreactivity; GnRH receptor mRNA hybridization signal was detected. The immunoreactive and signal materials distributed in cytoplasm of all positive cells, with nuclei being immunonegative and with no hybridization signal. These results suggested that the digestive tract can produce GnRH and express GnRH receptor; GnRH may also be a gastrointestinal hormone.  相似文献
4.
Transmission/disequilibrium tests have attracted much attention in genetic studies of complex traits because (a) their power to detect genes having small to moderate effects may be greater than that of other linkage methods and (b) they are robust against population stratification. Highly polymorphic markers have become available throughout the human genome, and many such markers can be studied within short physical distances. Studies using multiple tightly linked markers are more informative than those using single markers. However, such information has not been fully utilized by existing statistical methods, resulting in possibly substantial loss of information in the identification of genes underlying complex traits. In this article, we propose novel statistical methods to analyze multiple tightly linked markers. Simulation studies comparing our methods versus existing methods suggest that our methods are more powerful. Finally, we apply the proposed methods to study genetic linkage between the dopamine D2 receptor locus and alcoholism.  相似文献
5.
Hepatitis B virus transgenic mouse model of chronic liver disease.   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
A model for hepatitis B virus-associated chronic liver disease has been made using cloned hepatitis B virus DNA as a transgene in a severe combined immunodeficient host. These mice consistently support virus gene expression and replication. After adoptive transfer of unprimed, syngeneic splenocytes, these mice cleared virus from liver and serum, and developed chronic liver disease. This model will permit identification of the host and virus contributions to chronic liver disease in the absence of tolerance.  相似文献
6.
The activation of NF-kappaB and IKK requires an upstream kinase complex consisting of TAK1 and adaptor proteins such as TAB1, TAB2, or TAB3. TAK1 is in turn activated by TRAF6, a RING domain ubiquitin ligase that facilitates the synthesis of lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Here we present evidence that TAB2 and TAB3 are receptors that bind preferentially to lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin chains through a highly conserved zinc finger (ZnF) domain. Mutations of the ZnF domain abolish the ability of TAB2 and TAB3 to bind polyubiquitin chains, as well as their ability to activate TAK1 and IKK. Significantly, replacement of the ZnF domain with a heterologous ubiquitin binding domain restored the ability of TAB2 and TAB3 to activate TAK1 and IKK. We also show that TAB2 binds to polyubiquitinated RIP following TNFalpha stimulation. These results indicate that polyubiquitin binding domains represent a new class of signaling domains that regulate protein kinase activity through a nonproteolytic mechanism.  相似文献
7.
Urothelium synthesizes a group of integral membrane proteins called uroplakins, which form two-dimensional crystals (urothelial plaques) covering >90% of the apical urothelial surface. We show that the ablation of the mouse uroplakin III (UPIII) gene leads to overexpression, defective glycosylation, and abnormal targeting of uroplakin Ib, the presumed partner of UPIII. The UPIII-depleted urothelium features small plaques, becomes leaky, and has enlarged ureteral orifices resulting in the back flow of urine, hydronephrosis, and altered renal function indicators. Thus, UPIII is an integral subunit of the urothelial plaque and contributes to the permeability barrier function of the urothelium, and UPIII deficiency can lead to global anomalies in the urinary tract. The ablation of a single urothelial-specific gene can therefore cause primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), a hereditary disease affecting approximately 1% of pregnancies and representing a leading cause of renal failure in infants. The fact that VUR caused by UPIII deletion seems distinct from that caused by the deletion of angiotensin receptor II gene suggests the existence of VUR subtypes. Mutations in multiple gene, including some that are urothelial specific, may therefore cause different subtypes of primary reflux. Studies of VUR in animal models caused by well-defined genetic defects should lead to improved molecular classification, prenatal diagnosis, and therapy of this important hereditary problem.  相似文献
8.
9.
Variation in the inheritance of expression among subclones for an unselected (uidA) and a selected (bar) transgene was analyzed in two individual transformation events in maize. The unselectable gene (uidA) and the selectable gene (bar), on two separate plasmids, were transferred to maize (Hi-II derivative) by particle bombardment of embryogenic calli or suspension cells. A total of 188 fertile T1 plants were obtained from one transformant (transformation event BG which integrated uidA and bar). A total of 98 fertile T1 plants were obtained from a second transformant (transformation event B which integrated bar). Through self-pollination and/or cross-pollination in the greenhouse, approximately 10 000 T2 progeny were obtained from event BG, and more than 1000 T2 progeny were obtained from event B. Segregation of transgene expression was analyzed statistically in a total of 2350 T2 progeny from 40 T1 subclones of event BG and in 217 T2 progeny from six T1 subclones from event B. Variation in the inheritance of expression among subclones for the two transgenes (uidA and bar) was observed in the two transformants. A significant difference was observed between the use of the female or male as the transgenic parent in the inheritance of expression for the two transgenes in event BG. No inheritance through the pollen was observed in two of four T1 subclones analyzed in event B. Co-expression analysis of event BG showed that both transgenes were co-expressed in 67.7% of the T2 plants which expressed at least one of the two transgenes. Of the T2 expressing plants, 30.4% expressed only bar, and 1.9% expressed only uidA. Inactivation of the unselected (uidA) and the selected (bar) transgenes was observed in individual T2 plants.  相似文献
10.
High density oligonucleotide arrays (DNA chips) have been used in two color mutational analysis of the 3.43 kb exon 11 of the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer gene BRCA1 . Two color analysis allows competitive hybridization between a reference standard and an unknown sample, improving the performance of the assay. Fluorescein and phycoerythrin dyes werepreviously used due to their compatibility with a single line 488 nm excitation source. Here we show that an alternative dye combination, containing the energy transfer dye system phycoerythrin*cy5 along with phycoerythrin, provides more evenly matched signal intensities and decreased spectral overlap between the two fluorophores, while maintaining compatibility with a 488 nm excitation source.  相似文献
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