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We have probed the structure of the C4 and V3 domains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 by immunochemical techniques. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognizing an exposed gp120 sequence, (E/K)VGKAMYAPP, in C4 were differentially sensitive to denaturation of gp120, implying a conformational component to some of the epitopes. The MAbs recognizing conformation-sensitive C4 structures failed to bind to a gp120 mutant with an alteration in the sequence of the V3 loop, and their binding to gp120 was inhibited by both V3 and C4 MAbs. This implies an interaction between the V3 and C4 regions of gp120, which is supported by the observation that the binding of some MAbs to the V3 loop was often enhanced by amino acid changes in an around the C4 region.  相似文献
2.
Two hybridomas (H3 and D3) secreting monoclonal neutralizing antibody to intact poliovirus type 1 (Mahoney strain) were established. Each antibody bound to a site qualitatively different from that to which the other antibody bound. The H3 site was located on intact virions and, to a lesser extent, on 80S naturally occurring empty capsids and 14S precursor subunits. The D3 site was found only on virions and empty capsids. Neither site was expressed on 80S heat-treated virions. The antibodies did not react with free denatured or undenatured viral structural proteins. Viral variants which were no longer capable of being neutralized by either one or the other antibody were obtained. Such variants arose during normal cell culture passage of wild-type virus and were present in the progeny viral population on the order of 10(-4) variant per wild-type virus PFU. Toluene-2,4-diisocyanate, a heterobifunctional covalent cross-linking reagent, was used to irreversibly bind the F(ab) fragments of the two antibodies to their respective binding sites. In this way, VP1 was identified as the structural protein containing both sites.  相似文献
3.
Human and simian immunodeficiency-associated retroviruses are extraordinarily complex, containing at least five genes, tat, art, sor, R, and 3' orf, in addition to the structural genes gag, pol, and env. Recently, nucleotide sequence analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) and simian immunodeficiency virus SIVMAC revealed the existence of still another open reading frame, termed X, which is highly conserved between these two viruses but absent from HIV-1. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that the X open reading frame represents a functional retroviral gene in both HIV-2 and SIVMAC and that it encodes a virion-associated protein of 14 and 12 kilodaltons, respectively. We also describe the production of recombinant TrpE/X fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and show that sera from some HIV-2-infected individuals specifically recognize these proteins.  相似文献
4.
Major neutralization antigenic sites have been previously mapped by us on VP1, the largest capsid protein of poliovirus type 1. Here we report the first identification of the primary sequence of a neutralization antigenic site on capsid protein VP2. Inspection of the amino acid sequence of VP2 led to the selection and synthesis of a peptide (n = 12) that, after linking to a carrier protein, induced an antiviral neutralizing antibody response in rabbits. The response was augmented by a single subsequent inoculation of intact virus; thus, the peptide was also capable of priming the production of neutralizing antibodies. These antibodies were directed only against the site specified by the synthetic peptide. Although the VP2-specific neutralization antigenic site appears not to be strongly immunogenic in the intact virion, it can nevertheless contribute to neutralization of poliovirus. This observation may be important for the development of peptide vaccines.  相似文献
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6.
Albolabrin is a 73 amino acid peptide isolated from the venom of Trimeresurus albolabris. It contains an RGD sequence and 12 cysteines and is a potent inhibitor of both platelet aggregation and fibrinogen binding to the GPIIb/IIIa complex. This protein shows a high degree of analogy (primarily due to the alignment of all cysteines and the RGD) with a number of other viper venom proteins which inhibit cell adhesion and platelet aggregation and are referred to as disintegrins: rhodostomin, trigramin, flavoridin, applagin, elegantin, and batroxostatin. In this study, we found that the reduction and vinylpyridylethylation of albolabrin and flavoridin decreased their platelet aggregation inhibitory activity approximately 40-50 times. It can be postulated that the higher potency of native and reduced flavoridin as compared to albolabrin depends on the substitution of the Asp of albolabrin with a Phe at the C-terminal end of the RGD in flavoridin. The activity of a synthetic C-terminal peptide derived from flavoridin (residues 35-65) containing four cysteines was about 75 times lower than that of the original flavoridin. The substitution of a pair of cysteine residues with alanines in this peptide resulted in further loss of activity. In order to identify the disulfide bonds in albolabrin, the molecule was digested consecutively by trypsin and porcine pancreatic elastase. Peptides resulting from this digestion were isolated by reverse-phase HPLC and identified by amino acid composition and mass spectrometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
7.
We have previously demonstrated that a monoclonal antibody (5F7) directed against the heavy chain region of factor XI inhibits the binding of factor XI to high molecular weight kininogen (high Mr kininogen) and the surface-mediated proteolytic activation of factor XI by factor XIIa in the presence of high Mr kininogen. In order to identify the structural domain of factor XI that binds high Mr kininogen, CNBr-digested factor XI was passed over a 5F7 antibody affinity column. One of two CNBr peptides that bound to this 5F7 affinity column inhibited binding of 125I-factor XI to high Mr kininogen, as did intact factor XI. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of an inhibitory peptide purified by high performance liquid chromatography revealed an Mr of 10,000-15,000. Gas-phase sequencing of this peptide revealed the following amino-terminal sequence: X-X-Val-Thr-Gln-Leu-Leu-Lys-Asp-Thr. These data together with the amino acid composition of the isolated peptide indicate that both the epitope recognized by antibody 5F7 and at least a portion of the high Mr kininogen binding site are contained within the amino-terminal portion of factor XI comprising residues Glu-1 through Met-102. Further cleavage of this peptide with o-iodosobenzoic acid at a tryptophanyl peptide bond revealed that an Mr 5,000 peptide (with the amino-terminal sequence Trp-Phe-Thr-Cys-Val-Leu) bound to a high Mr kininogen affinity column and inhibited binding of 125I-factor XI to high Mr kininogen. Finally, a synthetic peptide comprising residues Phe-56 through Ser-86 inhibited 125I-factor XI binding to high Mr kininogen. These experiments strongly suggest that the high Mr kininogen binding site is contained within the domain in the heavy chain region of factor XI comprising residues Phe-56 through Ser-86.  相似文献
8.
Using immunological and chemical cleavage techniques, we have previously identified a domain contained within residues Phe56-Ser86 in the first tandem repeat (A1) of the heavy chain of factor XI which binds high Mr kininogen (Baglia, F. A., Jameson, B. A., and Walsh, P. N. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 4149-4154). We have now chemically synthesized peptides from corresponding homologous regions in the second (A2), third (A3), and fourth (A4) tandem repeats of the heavy chain (A2: Asn145-Ala176; A3: Asn235-Arg266; and A4: Gly326-Lys357). These peptides had no effect on the binding of factor XI to high Mr kininogen. Because of a lack of detailed structural information for the A1 domain, a molecular model of this region was constructed. This hypothetical model made distinct and testable predictions regarding potential surfaces and concomitant secondary structure. Specifically, the resulting structure depicted two juxtaposed beta-stranded stem-loops that, in conjunction with biological information, constitute a candidate surface for contact with high Mr kininogen. The hypothetical A1 model was, consequently, used as a predictive template in the rational design of two synthetic peptides (Val59-Arg70 and Asn72-Lys83). When both these peptides were added together and the binding of factor XI to high Mr kininogen was examined, a synergistic inhibitory effect was observed compared with each peptide added individually. Our data are consistent with the notion that the sequence of amino acids from Val59-Lys83 of the heavy chain of factor XI contains two antiparallel beta-strands connected by beta-turns that together comprise a continuous surface utilized for the binding of high Mr kininogen.  相似文献
9.
The CD4 glycoprotein, a member of the Ig super-family, has long been known to play an important role in the immunologic activation of Th cells. The precise manner in which CD4 participates in this activation process is not yet understood. In an attempt to further define its role in Th cell activation, we modeled the D1 domain of the murine CD4 protein (L3T4) based on the experimentally determined high resolution structure of the human CD4 protein. Because the D1 domain of CD4 strongly resembles the V kappa chain of an antibody, we addressed the question of whether the CDR-like regions of CD4 are also involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. Consequently, we used the modeled L3T4 structure as a template in the design of conformational mimics of the CDR3-like region (residues 86-94). Only the analog designed to mimic both the sequence and conformation of this region exhibited highly specific inhibition of CD4-dependent responses. Because the inhibitory activity could be localized to the Th cell itself, it appears that this analog acts by uncoupling a CD4 association (independent of an APC) critical to generating a proliferative response.  相似文献
10.
We have previously used monoclonal antibodies to identify an epitope on the heavy chain of factor XIa that is a substrate-binding site for factor IX (Sinha, D., Seaman, F.S., and Walsh, P.N. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 3768-3775; Baglia, F.A., Sinha, D., and Walsh, P.N. (1989) Blood 74, 244-251). To define the factor XIa domain that binds factor IX, we have now screened a panel of factor XI heavy chain-derived synthetic peptides for their capacity to inhibit the formation of an activation peptide reflecting factor IX activation by factor XIa. Peptide Asn145-Ala176 (which is located in the second tandem repeat or A2 domain of the factor XI heavy chain) is a competitive inhibitor of factor IX activation by factor XIa with a Ki of 30 nM, whereas structurally similar peptides in the A1, A3, and A4 domains were required at 10-1000-fold higher concentrations for similar effects, and a synthetic peptide identical with a highly homologous region of the heavy chain A2 domain of prekallikrein (Tyr143-Ala176) had no effect on factor IX activation by factor XIa. Because detailed structural information is lacking, a potential three-dimensional structure for the factor XI A2 domain was calculated based on its sequence information in conjunction with previously determined structural constraints. The resulting structure depicted three juxtaposed beta-stranded stem-loops that, based on biological information, constitute a candidate surface for contact with factor IX. The A2 model was therefore used as a template in the rational design of three synthetic peptides (Ala134-Ile146 (peptide a), Leu148-Arg159 (peptide b), and Ile160-Leu172 (peptide c]. When peptides a and b or a and c were added together and the activation of factor IX by factor XIa was examined, a synergistic inhibitory effect was observed, compared with each peptide added individually, whereas peptides b and c showed additive effects. Our data suggest that the sequence of amino acids from Ala134 through Leu172 of the heavy chain of factor XI contains three antiparallel beta-strands connected by beta-turns that together comprise a continuous surface utilized for the binding of factor IX.  相似文献
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