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The identification of disease markers in human body fluids requires an extensive and thorough analysis of its protein constituents. In the present study, we have extended our analysis of the human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome using protein prefractional followed by shotgun mass spectrometry. After the removal of abundant protein components from the mixture with the help of immunodepletion affinity chromatography, we used either anion exchange chromatography or sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to further subfractionate the proteins present in CSFs. Each protein subfraction was enzyme digested and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry and the resulting data evaluated using the Spectrum Mill software. Different subfractionation methods resulted in the identification of a grant total of 259 proteins in CSF from a patient with normal pressure hydrocephalus. The greatest number of protein, 240 in total, were identified after prefractionating the CSF proteins by immunodepletion and SDS-PAGE. Immuno-depletion combined with anion exchange fractionation resulted in 112 proteins and 74 proteins were found when only immunodepletion of the CSF samples was carried out. All methods used showed a significant increase in the number of identified proteins as compared with nondepleted and unfractionated CSF sample analysis, which yielded only 38 protein identifications. The present work establishes a platform for future studies aimed at a detailed comparative proteome analysis of CSFs from different groups of patients suffering from various psychiatric and neurological disorders.  相似文献
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Electrochemical properties of two multiforms of laccase from Trametes pubescens basidiomycete (LAC1 and LAC2) have been studied. The standard redox potentials of the T1 sites of the enzymes were found to be 746 and 738 mV vs. NHE for LAC1 and LAC2, respectively. Bioelectroreduction of oxygen based on direct electron transfer between each of the two forms of Trametes pubescens laccase and spectrographic graphite electrodes has been demonstrated and studied. It is concluded that the T1 site of laccase is the first electron acceptor, both in solution (homogeneous case) and when the enzymes are adsorbed on the surface of the graphite electrode (heterogeneous case). Thus, the previously proposed mechanism of oxygen bioelectroreduction by adsorbed fungal laccase was additionally confirmed using two forms of the enzyme. Moreover, the assumed need for extracellular laccase to communicate directly and electronically with a solid matrix (lignin) in the course of lignin degradation is discussed. In summary, the possible roles of multiforms of the enzyme based on their electrochemical, biochemical, spectral, and kinetic properties have been suggested to consist in broadening of the substrate specificity of the enzyme, in turn yielding the possibility to dynamically regulate the process of lignin degradation according to the real-time survival needs of the organism.  相似文献
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One of the most promising malaria vaccine candidate antigens is the Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen 1 (PfAMA1). Several studies have shown that this blood‐stage antigen can induce strong parasite growth inhibitory antibody responses. PfAMA1 contains up to six recognition sites for N‐linked glycosylation, a post‐translational modification that is absent in P. falciparum. To prevent any potential negative impact of N‐glycosylation, the recognition sites have been knocked out in most PfAMA1 variants expressed in eukaryotic hosts. However, N‐linked glycosylation may increase efficacy by improving immunogenicity and/or focusing the response towards relevant epitopes by glycan masking. We describe the production of glycosylated and nonglycosylated PfAMA1 in Nicotiana benthamiana and its detailed characterization in terms of yield, integrity and protective efficacy. Both PfAMA1 variants accumulated to high levels (>510 μg/g fresh leaf weight) after transient expression, and high‐mannose‐type N‐glycans were confirmed for the glycosylated variant. No significant differences between the N. benthamiana and Pichia pastoris PfAMA1 variants were detected in conformation‐sensitive ligand‐binding studies. Specific titres of >2 × 106 were induced in rabbits, and strong reactivity with P. falciparum schizonts was observed in immunofluorescence assays, as well as up to 100% parasite growth inhibition for both variants, with IC50 values of ~35 μg/mL. Competition assays indicated that a number of epitopes were shielded from immune recognition by N‐glycans, warranting further studies to determine how glycosylation can be used for the directed targeting of immune responses. These results highlight the potential of plant transient expression systems as a production platform for vaccine candidates.  相似文献
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