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In the present paper, we explore the evolution of cluster structure in closely related species in the Euphydryas aurinia complex based on morphological (wing pattern, genital armatures) and molecular (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) characters. Male genitalia differ in the length and shape of the uncus, harpe and juxta branches, by the shape of some parts of the phallus, and by the amount of spikes on the ventral section of the valva. The main trends in the vertical distribution of the E. aurinia group are dwarfism with increasing altitude, coupled with enlargement of paler and darker‐coloured elements of the wing pattern, increasing the overall contrast. Unlike the Euphydryas maturna, the E. aurinia complex forms many local populations specialized under different ecological conditions, probably affected by different evolutionary scenarios. The phylogenetic analysis of the group reveals two ecologically distinct subgroups: one associated with the boreal forest‐mesophyllic meadow biome and one associated with the xeromesophyllic steppe biome. Within each group, two major ecological strategies have evolved in parallel: montane and lowland. Based on the results of the analyses, we revise the nomenclature as follows: E. aurinia pyrenesdebilis (Verity, 1928), stat. rev. (= debilis Oberthür, 1909, syn.n. , nomen nudum), E. aurinia bulgarica (Fruhstorfer, 1916), stat. rev. , E. aurinia provincialis (Boisduval, 1828), stat. rev. and E. beckeri (Lederer, 1853), stat. rev. The following name‐bearing types are designated: neotype of Papilio aurinia Rottemburg, 1775, neotype of Papilio merope de Prunner, 1798, lectotype of Melitaea beckeri Lederer, 1853, and lectotype of Melitaea aurinia banghaasi Seitz, 1908. All name‐bearing types are figured. A new subspecies, Euphydryas laeta ostracon Korb, Bolshakov, Fric, ssp.n. , is described (type locality by holotype data: Kazakhstan, Vostochno‐Kazakhstanskaya Oblast, Shemonaikha).  相似文献
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We used butterfly species lists available for a set of 125 Czech Republic National Nature Reserves and Monuments, the highest small‐sized conservation category in the country encompassing practically all biotope types existing in central Europe, to test the validity of generally agreed “reserve design rules” using multivariate ordination analyses. Further, we used ordination analysis of butterfly life history traits to seek for biological mechanisms responsible for butterfly community responses to essentially geometric reserves characteristics. Reserve area, relative perimeter, within reserve habitat heterogeneity, and surrounding landscape compositional and configurational heterogeneity all affected the composition of butterfly assemblages after controlling for effects of geographical position and prevailing biotope type. Species inclining towards large reserves displayed low mobility and high local population density, probably because they require large habitat areas to maintain self‐sustaining populations; such species tend to have restricted distribution in the country and threatened status. Reserves with relatively long boundaries hosted species with high mobility, broad trophic range and long adult period; faunas of such reserves contain high proportions of widespread generalists. Species with narrow trophic ranges inclined towards reserves containing diverse habitats, probably due to requirements for high floristic diversity. Species with short adult flight, low generations number and overwintering in early stages inclined towards reserves situated amidst diverse landscapes, perhaps because such species require finely‐grained mosaics for metapopulation dynamics. Commonly agreed reserve design rules thus hold for Central European butterflies, but different design characteristics are important for individual species, depending on their life histories.  相似文献
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