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A technique for conveniently radiolabeling DNA restriction endonuclease fragments to high specific activity is described. DNA fragments are purified from agarose gels directly by ethanol precipitation and are then denatured and labeled with the large fragment of DNA polymerase I, using random oligonucleotides as primers. Over 70% of the precursor triphosphate is routinely incorporated into complementary DNA, and specific activities of over 10(9) dpm/microgram of DNA can be obtained using relatively small amounts of precursor. These "oligolabeled" DNA fragments serve as efficient probes in filter hybridization experiments.  相似文献
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Genetic linkage of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome to 11p15.   总被引:29,自引:10,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS), characterized by multiorgan developmental abnormalities and predisposition to cancer, usually occurs sporadically, but small apparently dominant pedigrees have been described. Since rare patients show varying karyotypic abnormalities on the short arm of chromosome 11, it has been suggested that BWS may be related to the Wilms tumor gene on 11p13 or, alternatively, to growth factor genes on 11p15. We performed genetic linkage analysis on two BWS kindreds, using RFLPs for loci on 11p. BWS was linked to the insulin gene (11p15.5), with an overall maximum lod score of 3.60 (recombination fraction = .00). Linkage to D11S16 (11p13) could be excluded for recombination fractions less than or equal to .03. These results suggest that BWS defines a tumor-predisposition gene on 11p15.  相似文献
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Children with associated Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary malformations, and mental retardation (WAGR syndrome) frequently have a cytogenetically visible germ line deletion of chromosomal band 11p13. In accordance with the Knudson hypothesis of two-hit carcinogenesis, the absence of this chromosomal band suggests that loss of both alleles of a gene at 11p13 causes Wilms' tumor. Consistent with this model, chromosomes from sporadically occurring Wilms' tumor cells frequently show loss of allelic heterozygosity at polymorphic 11p15 loci, and therefore it has been assumed that allelic loss extends proximally to include 11p13. We report here that in samples from five sporadic Wilms' tumors, allelic loss occurred distal to the WAGR locus on 11p13. In cells from one tumor, mitotic recombination occurred distal to the gamma-globin gene on 11p15.5. Thus, allelic loss in sporadic Wilms' tumor cells may involve a second locus on 11p.  相似文献
4.
Low frequency of p57KIP2 mutation in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome.   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of increased prenatal growth and predisposition to embryonal cancers such as Wilms tumor. BWS is thought to involve one or more imprinted genes, since some patients show paternal uniparental disomy, and others show balanced germ-line chromosomal rearrangements involving the maternal chromosome. We previously mapped BWS, by genetic linkage analysis, to 11p15.5, which we and others also found to contain several imprinted genes; these include the gene for insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) and H19, which show abnormal imprint-specific expression and/or methylation in 20% of BWS patients, and p57KIP2, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, which we found showed biallelic expression in one of nine BWS patients studied. In addition, p57KIP2 was recently reported to show mutations in two of nine BWS patients. We have now analyzed the entire coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of p57KIP2 in 40 unrelated BWS patients. Of these patients, only two (5%) showed mutations, both involving frameshifts in the second exon. In one case, the mutation was transmitted to the proband's mother, who was also affected, from the maternal grandfather, suggesting that p57KIP2 is not imprinted in at least some affected tissues at a critical stage of development and that haploinsufficiency due to mutation of either parental allele may cause at least some features of BWS. The low frequency of p57KIP2 mutations, as well as our recent discovery of disruption of the K(v)LQT1 gene in patients with chromosomal rearrangements, suggest that BWS can involve disruption of multiple independent 11p15.5 genes.  相似文献
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Using a panel of patient cell lines with chromosomal breakpoints, we constructed a physical map for the short arm of human chromosome 11. We focused on 11p15, a chromosome band harboring at least 25 known genes and associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, several childhood tumors, and genomic imprinting. This underlines the need for a physical map for this region. We divided the short arm of chromosome 11 into 18 breakpoint regions, and a large series of new and previously described genes and markers was mapped within these intervals using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Cosmid fingerprint analysis showed that 19 of these markers were included in cosmid contigs. A detailed 10-Mb pulsed-field physical map of the region 11p15.3-pter was constructed. These three different approaches enabled the high-resolution mapping of 210 markers, including 22 known genes.  相似文献
7.
Methylation of cytosine is a covalent modification of DNA that can be used to silence genes, orchestrating a myriad of biological processes including cancer. We have discovered that a synthetic nanopore in a membrane comparable in thickness to a protein binding site can be used to detect methylation. We observe a voltage threshold for permeation of methylated DNA through a <2 nm diameter pore, which we attribute to the stretching transition; this can differ by >1 V/20 nm depending on the methylation level, but not the DNA sequence.  相似文献
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