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1.
Reduced expression of the nm23 gene in certain rodent model systems and human breast tumors has been correlated with high tumor metastatic potential. To investigate the functional effects of nm23 expression, we have transfected a constitutive murine nm23-1 expression construct into highly metastatic K-1735 TK murine melanoma cells. TK clones expressing the exogenous nm23-1 construct exhibited a reduced incidence of primary tumor formation, significant reductions in tumor metastatic potential independent of tumor cell growth, and altered responses to the cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 in soft agar colonization assays, compared with control-transfected TK clones. In contrast, nm23-1-transfected TK clones exhibited no significant differences in intrinsic tumor cell growth, i.e., primary tumor size in vivo, anchorage-dependent growth rate in vitro, and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar in vitro. The data demonstrate a suppressive effect of nm23 on several aspects of the cancer process, including tumor metastasis.  相似文献
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Neuronotrophic effects of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) have been reported for some central nervous system neurons. Here we report that also rat mesencephalic neurons are responsive to bFGF. bFGF produces a significant increase in the number of neurite-bearing cells, as well as in the degree of their fiber network. The present findings also provide the first evidence that bFGF can affect, in a concentration-dependent manner, at least two defined CNS neuronal populations, i.e., dopaminergic and gabaergic neurons. This effect was quantified by assessing the specific [3H]dopamine and [gamma-14C]aminobutyric acid uptakes with time in culture. Stimulation of uptake was more pronounced for dopaminergic neurons, suggesting a relative specificity in the actions of bFGF. These effects of bFGF were completely blocked by affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. The possibility that bFGF plays a key role in normal nervous system development or function is discussed.  相似文献
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This study aimed to identify human genomic regions that are linked to maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2 max)) in sedentary individuals or to the responsiveness of VO(2 max) to a standardized endurance training program. The results of a genomic scan based on 289 polymorphic markers covering all 22 pairs of autosomes performed on the Caucasian families of the HERITAGE Family Study are presented. The mean spacing of the markers was 11 cM, and a total of 99 families and 415 pairs of siblings were available for the study. VO(2 max) in the sedentary state was adjusted for the effects of age, sex, body mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass, whereas the VO(2 max) response was adjusted for age and baseline level of the phenotype. Two analytic strategies were used: a single-point linkage procedure using all available pairs of siblings (SIBPAL) and a multipoint variance components approach using all the family data (SEGPATH). Results indicate that linkages at P values of 0.01 and better are observed with markers on 4q, 8q, 11p, and 14q for VO(2 max) before training and with markers on 1p, 2p, 4q, 6p, and 11p for the change in VO(2 max) in response to a 20-wk standardized endurance training program. These chromosomal regions harbor many genes that may qualify as candidate genes for these quantitative traits. They should be investigated in this and other cohorts.  相似文献
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It has been suggested that genetic variation in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene is associated with physical performance. We studied the association between the ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism and several fitness phenotypes measured before and after 20 wk of a standardized endurance training program in sedentary Caucasian (n = 476) and black (n = 248) subjects. Phenotypes measured were oxygen uptake (VO(2)), work rate, heart rate, minute ventilation, tidal volume, and blood lactate levels during maximal and submaximal [50 W and at 60 and 80% of maximal VO(2) (VO(2 max))] exercise and stroke volume and cardiac output during submaximal exercise (50 W and at 60% VO(2 max)). The ACE ID polymorphism was typed with the three-primer PCR method. Out of 216 association tests performed on 54 phenotypes in 4 groups of participants, only 11 showed significant (P values from 0.042 to 0. 0001) associations with the ACE ID polymorphism. In contrast to previous claims, in Caucasian offspring, the DD homozygotes showed a 14-38% greater increase with training in VO(2 max), VO(2) at 80% of VO(2 max), and all work rate phenotypes and a 36% greater decrease in heart rate at 50 W than did the II homozygotes. No associations were evident in Caucasian parents or black parents or offspring. Thus these data do not support the hypothesis that the ACE ID polymorphism plays a major role in cardiorespiratory endurance.  相似文献
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The existence and mechanisms of inactivation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels are important, but still debatable, physiological problems. By using the Ca2+ indicators quin2 and fura-2, we demonstrate that in PC12 cells voltage-gated Ca2+ channels undergo inactivation dependent on both voltage and [Ca2+]i. Inactivation, however, is never complete and a small number of channels remains open during prolonged depolarization, explaining the steady state elevation of [Ca2+]i observed in cells depolarized with high KCl. A close parallel exists between Ca2+ channel inactivation and the transient nature of neurotransmitter release: secretion is rapidly stimulated during the first 30 s of depolarization, when a transient overshoot in [Ca2+]i can be demonstrated, while it is negligible during the following period, despite the persistence of an elevated [Ca2+]i; predepolarization in Ca2+-free medium and subsequent addition of Ca2+ (a condition which allows the development of the voltage inactivation) abolishes the fast phase of secretion, while not modifying the steady state [Ca2+]i eventually attained; and increases in the intracellular Ca2+ buffering decreases the amplitude of the fast secretion phase induced by KCl without altering the steady state [Ca2+]i. We suggest that localized [Ca2+]i gradients form close to the plasma membrane shortly after depolarization and that the [Ca2+]i reached in these regions is the relevant parameter in the regulation of secretion.  相似文献
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