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1.
D I Linzer  A J Levine 《Cell》1979,17(1):43-52
SV40 infection or transformation of murine cells stimulated the production of a 54K dalton protein that was specifically immunoprecipitated, along with SV40 large T and small t antigens, with sera from mice or hamsters bearing SV40-induced tumors. The same SV40 anti-T sera immunoprecipitated a 54K dalton protein from two different, uninfected murine embryonal carcinoma cell lines. These 54K proteins from SV40-transformed mouse cells and the uninfected embryonal carcinomas cells had identical partial peptide maps which were completely different from the partial peptide map of SV40 large T antigen. An Ad2+ND4-transformed hamster cell line also expressed a 54K protein that was specifically immunoprecipitated by SV40 T sera. The partial peptide maps of the mouse and hamster 54K protein were different, showing the host cell species specificity of these proteins. The 54K hamster protein was also unrelated to the Ad2+ND4 SV40 T antigen. Analogous proteins immunoprecipitated by SV40 T sera, ranging in molecular weight from 44K to 60K, were detected in human and monkey SV40-infected or -transformed cells. A wide variety of sera from hamsters and mice bearing SV40-induced tumors immunoprecipitated the 54K protein of SV40-transformed cells and murine embryonal carcinoma cells. Antibody produced by somatic cell hybrids between a B cell and a myeloma cell (hybridoma) against SV40 large T antigen also immunoprecipitated the 54K protein in virus-infected and -transformed cells, but did not do so in the embryonal carcinoma cell lines. We conclude that SV40 infection or transformation of mouse cells stimulates the synthesis or enhances the stability of a 54K protein. This protein appears to be associated with SV40 T antigen in SV40-infected and -transformed cells, and is co-immunoprecipitated by hybridomas sera to SV40 large T antigen. The 54K protein either shares antigenic determinants with SV40 T antigen or is itself immunogenic when in association with SV40 large T antigen. The protein varies with host cell species, and analogous proteins were observed in hamster, monkey and human cells. The role of this protein in transformation is unclear at present.  相似文献
2.
The p53 proto-oncogene can act as a suppressor of transformation   总被引:228,自引:0,他引:228  
C A Finlay  P W Hinds  A J Levine 《Cell》1989,57(7):1083-1093
DNA clones of the wild-type p53 proto-oncogene inhibit the ability of E1A plus ras or mutant p53 plus ras-activated oncogenes to transform primary rat embryo fibroblasts. The rare clones of transformed foci that result from E1A plus ras plus wild-type p53 triple transfections all contain the p53 DNA in their genome, but the great majority fail to express the p53 protein. The three cell lines derived from such foci that express p53 all produce mutant p53 proteins with properties similar or identical to transformation-activated p53 proteins. The p53 mutants selected in this fashion (transformation in vitro) resemble the p53 mutants selected in tumors (in vivo). These results suggest that the p53 proto-oncogene can act negatively to block transformation.  相似文献
3.
The E6 protein encoded by the oncogenic human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 is one of two viral products expressed in HPV-associated cancers. E6 is an oncoprotein which cooperates with E7 to immortalize primary human keratinocytes. Insight into the mechanism by which E6 functions in oncogenesis is provided by the observation that the E6 protein encoded by HPV-16 and HPV-18 can complex the wild-type p53 protein in vitro. Wild-type p53 gene has tumor suppressor properties, and is a target for several of the oncoproteins encoded by DNA tumor viruses. In this study we demonstrate that the E6 proteins of the oncogenic HPVs that bind p53 stimulate the degradation of p53. The E6-promoted degradation of p53 is ATP dependent and involves the ubiquitin-dependent protease system. Selective degradation of cellular proteins such as p53 with negative regulatory functions provides a novel mechanism of action for dominant-acting oncoproteins.  相似文献
4.
5.
The 11-4 p53 cDNA clone failed to transform primary rat fibroblasts when cotransfected with the ras oncogene. Two linker insertion mutations at amino acid 158 or 215 (of 390 amino acids) activated this p53 cDNA for transformation with ras. These mutant cDNAs produced a p53 protein that lacked an epitope, recognized by monoclonal antibody PAb246 (localized at amino acids 88 to 110 in the protein) and preferentially bound to a heat shock protein, hsc70. In rat cells transformed by a genomic p53 clone plus ras, two populations of p53 proteins were detected, PAb246+ and PAb246-, which did or did not bind to this monoclonal antibody, respectively. The PAb246- p53 preferentially associated with hsc70, and this protein had a half-life 4- to 20-fold longer than free p53 (PAb246+). These data suggest a possible functional role for hsc70 in the transformation process. cDNAs for p53 derived from methylcholanthrene-transformed cells transform rat cells in cooperation with the ras oncogene and produce a protein that bound with the heat shock proteins. Recombinant clones produced between a Meth A cDNA and 11-4 were tested for the ability to transform rat cells. A single amino acid substitution at residue 132 was sufficient to activate the 11-4 p53 cDNA for transformation. These studies have identified a region between amino acids 132 and 215 in the p53 protein which, when mutated, can activate the p53 cDNA. These results also call into question what the correct p53 wild-type sequence is and whether a wild-type p53 gene can transform cells in culture.  相似文献
6.
The 54K cellular tumor antigen has been translated in vitro, using messenger ribonucleic acids from simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed cells or 3T3 cells. The in vitro 54K product could be immunoprecipitated with SV40 tumor serum and had a peptide map that was similar, but not identical, to the in vivo product. The levels of this 54K protein in SV3T3 cells were significantly higher than those detected in 3T3 cells (D. I. H. Linzer, W. Maltzman, and A. J. Levine, Virology 98:308-318, 1979). In spite of this, the levels of translatable 54K messenger ribonucleic acid from 3T3 and SV3T3 cells were roughly equivalent or often greater in 3T3 cells. Pulse-chase experiments with the 54K protein from 3T3 or SV3T3 cells demonstrated that this protein, once synthesized, was rapidly degraded in 3T3 cells but was extremely stable in SV3T3 cells. Similarly, in an SV40 tsA-transformed cell line, temperature sensitive for the SV40 T-antigen, the 54K protein was rapidly turned over at the nonpermissive temperature and stable at the permissive temperature, whereas the levels of translatable 54K messenger ribonucleic acid at each temperature were roughly equal. These results demonstrate a post-translational regulation of the 54K cellular tumor antigen and suggest that this control is mediated by the SV40 large T-antigen.  相似文献
7.
Previous experiments have brought into question which amino acid sequence of the p53 oncogene product should be considered wild type and whether the normal protein is capable of cooperating with the ras oncogene to transform cells in culture. To address these questions, a series of p53 cDNA-genomic hybrid clones have been compared for the ability to cooperate with the ras oncogene in transformation assays. From these experiments, it has become clear that the amino acid alanine at position 135, in either the genomic clone or the cDNA clone, failed to produce a p53 protein that cooperated with the ras oncogene and transformed cells. Replacing alanine with valine at this position in either the genomic or the cDNA clone activated for transformation in this assay. Using restriction enzyme polymorphisms in the p53 gene, it was shown that normal mouse DNA encodes alanine at position 135 in the p53 protein. Thus, mutation is required to activate the p53 protein for cooperation with the ras oncogene. After cotransfection with the activated ras gene, the genomic p53 DNA clone always produced more transformed cell foci (1.7-fold) than similar cDNA clones and these foci were more readily cloned (3.6-fold) into permanent cell lines. A series of deletion mutants of the genomic p53 clone were employed to show that the presence of intron 4 in the p53 gene was sufficient to provide much enhanced clonability of transformed foci from culture dishes. The presence of introns in the p53 gene constructions also resulted in elevated levels of p53 protein in the p53-plus-ras-transformed cell lines. Thus, qualitative changes in the p53 protein are required to activate p53 for transformation with the oncogene ras. Quantitative improvements of transformation frequencies are associated with the higher expression levels of altered p53 protein that are provided by having one of the p53 introns in the transforming plasmid.  相似文献
8.
The majority of the p53 genes derived from human colorectal carcinomas contain point mutations. A significant number of these mutations occur in or around amino acids 143, 175, 273, or 281. Experiments presented here demonstrate for the first time that p53 DNA clones containing any one of these mutations cooperate with the activated ras oncogene to transform primary rat embryo cells in culture. These transformed cells produce elevated levels of the human p53 protein, which has extended half-lives (1.5-7 h), as compared to the wild-type human p53 protein (20-30 min). The p53 mutant with an alteration at residue 175 (p53-175H) binds tightly to the cellular heat shock protein, hsc70. In contrast, the p53 mutants possessing mutations at either residue 273 or 281 (p53-273H/281G) do not bind detectably to this heat shock protein and generally are less efficient at forming transformed foci in culture. The transformed cell lines are tumorigenic in nude mice. Thus, two classes of p53 mutant proteins can be distinguished: p53-175H, which cooperates with ras efficiently and binds to hsc70, and p53-273H/281G, which has a reduced efficiency of transformed foci formation and does not bind hsc70. This demonstrates that complex formation between mutant p53 and hsc70 is not required for p53-mediated transformation, but rather it facilitates this function, perhaps by ensuring sequestration of the endogenous wild-type p53 protein. The positive effect on cell proliferation by these mutant p53 proteins is consistent with a role for activated p53 mutants in the genesis of colorectal carcinomas.  相似文献
9.
P Sarnow  Y S Ho  J Williams  A J Levine 《Cell》1982,28(2):387-394
The adenovirus E1b-58kd tumor antigen has been detected in a physical association with a 54 kilodalton cellular protein in adenovirus-transformed mouse cells. Antibody specific for the E1b-58kd protein coimmunoprecipitates a 54 kd protein from transformed, but not from productively infected, cells. Monoclonal antibody specific for the cellular 54 kd protein coimmunoprecipitates the adenovirus E1b-58kd protein from transformed cell extracts. The same or closely related cellular 54 kd protein, associated with the adenovirus E1b-58kd protein, was present in the SV40 large T antigen-54 kd complex previously detected in SV40-transformed mouse cells. The identity of the 54 kd protein is based on the immunological specificities of the anti-54 kd monoclonal antibodies and partial peptide maps of the 54 kd protein associated with the adenovirus and SV40 tumor antigens. The adenovirus E1b-58kd-54 kd complex, like the SV40 large T antigen-54 kd complex, is heterogeneous in size or mass. While all of the cellular 54 kd protein in the adenovirus-transformed cell extract is found in a complex with the E1b-58kd protein, some of the viral 58 kd antigen is detected in a form not associated with the 54 kd protein. The fact that the adenovirus and Sv40 tumor antigens, both required for transformation, can be found in physical association with the same cellular protein in a transformed cell is a good indication that these two diverse viral proteins share some common mechanisms or functions.  相似文献
10.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome becomes established as a multicopy plasmid in the nucleus of infected B lymphocytes. A cis-acting DNA sequence previously described within the BamHI-C fragment of the EBV genome (J. Yates, N. Warren, D. Reisman, and B. Sugden, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81:3806-3810, 1984) allows stable extrachromosomal plasmid maintenance in latently infected cells, but not in EBV-negative cells. In agreement with the findings of Yates et al., deletion analysis permitted the assignment of this function to a 2,208-base-pair region (nucleotides 7315 to 9517 of the B95-8 strain of EBV) of the BamHI-C fragment that contained a striking repetitive sequence and an extended region of dyad symmetry. A recombinant vector, p410+, was constructed which carried the BamHI-K fragment (nucleotides 107565 to 112625 of the B95-8 strain, encoding the EBV-associated nuclear antigen EBNA-1), the cis-acting sequence from the BamHI-C fragment, and a dominant selectable marker gene encoding G-418 resistance in animal cells. After being transfected into HeLa cells, this plasmid persisted extrachromosomally at a low copy number, with no detectable rearrangements or deletions. Two mutations in the BamHI-K-derived portion of p410+, a large in-frame deletion and a linker insertion frameshift mutation, both of which alter the carboxy-terminal portion of EBNA-1, destroyed the ability of the plasmid to persist extrachromosomally in HeLa cells. A small in-frame deletion and linker insertion mutation in the region encoding the carboxy-terminal portion of EBNA-1, which replaced 19 amino acid codons with 2, had no effect on the maintenance of p410+ in HeLa cells. These observations indicate that EBNA-1, in combination with a cis-acting sequence in the BamHI-C fragment, is in part responsible for extrachromosomal EBV-derived plasmid maintenance in HeLa cells. Two additional activities have been localized to the BamHI-C DNA fragment: (i) a DNA sequence that could functionally substitute for the simian virus 40 enhancer and promoter elements controlling the expression of G-418 resistance and (ii) a DNA sequence which, although not sufficient to allow extrachromosomal plasmid maintenance, enhanced the frequency of transformation to G-418 resistance in EBV-positive (but not EBV-negative) cells. These findings suggest that the BamHI-C fragment contains a lymphoid-specific or EBV-inducible promoter or enhancer element or both.  相似文献
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