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1.
从旱生植物叶结构探讨其生态适应的多样性   总被引:56,自引:4,他引:52       下载免费PDF全文
王勋陵  马骥 《生态学报》1999,19(6):787-792
以西北地区62种旱生植物的叶器官为研究对象,通过切片显微观察、生物学统计及模糊数学分析,探讨旱生植物生态适应的多样性,获得如下结果:①旱生植物依叶肉组成和细胞排列可划分为正常型、双栅型、环栅型、全栅型、不规则型,折迭和和无叶肉型;②叶肉类型的演化是以正常型与不规则型两条路线呈树枝状发展。深化较原始的偏向于中生,演化层次较高的更具适应旱生环境的能力;③进生植物的叶肉类型与生活型具有相关性,与环境具有  相似文献
2.
Eight perennial C-4 grasses from the Jornada del Muerto Basin in southern New Mexico show five-fold differences in relative growth rates under well- watered conditions (RGRmax). In a controlled environment, we tested the hypothesis that there is an inverse relationship (trade-off) between RGRmax and the capacity of these species to tolerate drought. We examined both physiological (gas exchange) and morphological (biomass allocation, leaf properties) determinants of growth for these eight species under three steady-state drought treatments (none=control, moderate, and severe). When well watered, the grasses exhibited a large interspecific variation in growth, which was reflected in order-of-magnitude biomass differences after 5 weeks. The species had similar gas-exchange characteristics, but differed in all the measured allocation and morphological characteristics, namely tiller mass and number, root:shoot ratio, dry-matter content, and specific leaf area (SLA). Drought affected tillering, morphology, and allocation, and reduced growth by 50 and 68% (moderate and severe drought, respectively) compared to the well-watered controls. With the exception of SLA, none of these variables showed a significant species-by-treatment interaction. We calculated three indices of drought tolerance, defined as the ratio in final biomass between all the possible ”dry”/”wet” treatment pairs: severe/moderate, moderate/control, and severe/control. We found no significant correlation between these drought tolerance indices, on the one hand, and three indices of growth potential (greenhouse RGRmax, final biomass in the control treatment, and final:initial biomass ratio in controls), on the other. Based on these controlled-environment results, we hypothesize that the commonly reported correlation between plant growth potential and drought tolerance in the field may in some cases be explained by differential effects of plants on soil-water content rather than by differences in species responses to drought. Received: 10 March 1999 / Accepted: 8 November 1999  相似文献
3.
Song J  Feng G  Tian C  Zhang F 《Annals of botany》2005,96(3):399-405
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Germination is very important for plant establishment in arid regions. The strategies taken by halophytes during the seed germination stage to adapt to saline environments in an arid zone were investigated in Suaeda physophora (euhalophyte), Haloxylon ammodendron (xero-halophyte) and Haloxylon persicum (xerophyte). METHODS: Seeds of S. physophora, H. ammodendron and H. persicum were exposed to a range of iso-osmotic NaCl and PEG solutions. Seed germination in, and recovery germination from, high NaCl were recorded. The effects of iso-osmotic NaCl and PEG on seed water uptake and changes in ion content were measured. In addition, the structure of seeds and Na+ distribution in the seed coat and embryos of dry seeds were investigated. KEY RESULTS: The relative increase in fresh weight of germinating seeds was markedly reduced in -2.24 MPa PEG compared with that in -2.24 MPa NaCl, while the opposite trend was found in concentration of K+ during the initial 9 h for all species. Haloxylon ammodendron and S. physophora had a higher recovery germination from -3.13 MPa NaCl compared with H. persicum. Seeds of all species had no endosperm. More Na+ was compartmentalized in the seed coats of the two halophytic species compared with that in the xerophyte H. persicum. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of NaCl on seed germination was due to both osmotic stress and ion toxicity for the three species. High soil salinity and a high content of Na+ in seeds may induce more seeds to remain ungerminated in S. physophora and H. ammodendron. Morphological structure and adaptation to salinity during seed germination may determine the geographical distribution of H. ammodendron and S. physophora in certain saline regions.  相似文献
4.
陕北黄土高原优势植物叶片解剖结构的生态适应性   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
以陕北黄土高原地区7种优势植物为材料,比较了它们沟间地和沟谷地植株叶片解剖结构的差异,以揭示该地区优势植物对干旱强光照环境的生态适应性.结果表明:(1)7种植物各自具有抵抗黄土高原干旱强光照环境的特殊解剖结构:白羊草(Bothriochloa ischaemum)叶上表皮具有发达的泡状细胞,叶内具有花环结构;长芒草(Stipa bungeana) 叶上表皮下陷形成气孔窝,表皮下具有2至多层的厚壁组织;猪毛蒿(Artemisia scoparia)叶具有贮水组织、分泌组织和环栅型叶肉细胞;铁杆蒿(Artemisia sacrorum)叶肉全特化为栅栏组织;茭蒿(Artemisia giraldii)具有双栅型叶肉细胞和分泌结构;达乌里胡枝子(Lespedeza daurica)叶具有发达的粘液细胞;杠柳(Periploca sepium)叶表皮具厚蜡质层.(2)与沟谷地植物叶片结构相比,干旱强光照的沟间地植物叶片厚度、叶上表皮角质层厚度、栅栏组织厚度、贮水组织厚度增加,上表皮细胞体积、韧皮部面积增大,而木质部面积、木质部面积/韧皮部面积缩小.(3)叶片变异系数可反映植物适应环境的潜在能力,7种植物综合变异系数由高到低依次为猪毛蒿、铁杆蒿、茭蒿、白羊草、达乌里胡枝子、长芒草、杠柳.潜在适应能力最强的猪毛蒿已成为陕北黄土高原地区植被生态恢复的先锋物种之一.  相似文献
5.
Chaudhry MS  Batool Z  Khan AG 《Mycorrhiza》2005,15(8):606-611
Plant species dominance and arbuscular mycorrhizas (AMs) were evaluated in four different habitats of Cholistan desert, Pakistan. The sites were selected on the basis of variations in topography, floristic composition and biotic interference. The phytosociological data revealed obvious differences in the floristic composition, plant species diversity, AM colonization and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore densities in the rhizospheres. The vegetation pattern and composition was governed by topography and edaphic characteristics of a particular site. Grasses were dominant and main components of vegetation at all the study sites and were invariably mycorrhizal. Some plant species were mycorrhizal at one site but non-mycorrhizal at the other. The AMF survey reported here offers an important starting point from which to analyse AMF community structure in different phytosociological habitats and land uses of Cholistan desert.  相似文献
6.
贺兰山10种不同植物的旱生结构研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
对贺兰山10种不同生活型植物的形态解剖研究表明,长期生长在干旱贫瘠环境中植物,均形成适应生境的一些特殊形态结构.叶器官主要表现在:(1)叶表面积与体积之比缩小,表面覆有厚的角质膜,并被有表皮毛,气孔下陷,具孔下室;(2)栅栏薄壁组织细胞明显增多,海绵薄壁组织细胞减少.有叶肉不分化叶、等而叶和异而叶3种结构形式;(3)叶内贮水组织和机械组织增强。轴器官主要表现在:(1)根普遍形成周皮,且木栓层细胞层数增多;(2)机械组织非常发达,在周皮、皮层和韧皮部中有许多厚壁细胞分布。维管组织中的木薄壁细胞的细胞壁也明显木质化加厚;(3)有些植物的根具有异常维管组织。另外,这些植物根、茎、叶中均有粘液细胞和含晶细胞分布。这些结构具有重要的适应干旱生境的意义。  相似文献
7.
Hydrogen isotope fractionation during water uptake by woody xerophytes   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Stable isotope measurements are employed extensively in plant–water relations research to investigate physiological and hydrological processes from whole plant to ecosystem scales. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are routinely measured to identify plant source water. This application relies on the assumption that no fractionation of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in water occurs during uptake by roots. However, a large fraction of the water taken up through roots in halophytic and xerophytic plants transverses cell membranes in the endodermis before entering the root xylem. Passage of water through this symplastic pathway has been hypothesized to cause fractionation leading to a decrease in 2H of root xylem water relative to that in the surrounding soil medium. We examined 16 woody halophytic and xerophytic plant species in controlled conditions for evidence of hydrogen isotope fractionation during uptake at the root–soil interface. Isotopic separation (Δ2H = δ2Hsoil water − δ2Hxylem water) ranging from 3‰ to 9‰ was observed in 12 species. A significant positive correlation between salinity tolerance and the magnitude of Δ2H was observed. Water in whole stem segments, sapwood, and roots had significantly lower δ2H values relative to soil water in Prosopis velutina Woot., the species expressing the greatest Δ2H values among the 16 species examined. Pressurized water flow through intact root systems of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. and Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt. caused the δ2H values to decrease as flow rate increased. This relationship was not observed in P. velutina. Destroying the plasma membranes of root cells by excessive heat from boiling did not significantly alter the relationship between δ2H of expressed water and flow rate. In light of these results, care should be taken when using the stable isotope method to examine source-water use in halophytic and xerophytic species.  相似文献
8.
Photosynthesis and photoinhibition in two xerophytic shrubs during drought   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Seasonal changes in water relations, net photosynthetic rate (P N), and fluorescence of chlorophyll (Chl) a of two perennial C3 deciduous shrubs, Ipomoea carnea and Jatropha gossypifolia, growing in a thorn scrub in Venezuela were studied in order to establish the possible occurrence of photoinhibition during dry season and determine whether changes in photochemical activity of photosystem 2 (PS2) may explain variations of P N in these species. Leaf water potential () decreased from –0.2 to –2.1 MPa during drought in both species. The P N decreased with in I. carnea and J. gossypifolia by 64 and 74 %, respectively. Carboxylation efficiency (CE) decreased by more than 50 and 70 % in I. carnea and J. gossypifolia, respectively. In I. carnea, relative stomatal limitation (Ls) increased by 17 % and mesophyll limitation (Lm) by 65 % during drought, while in J. gossypifolia Ls decreased by 27 % and Lm increased by 51 %. Drought caused a reduction in quantum yield of PS2 (PS2) in both species. Drought affected the capacity of energy dissipation of leaves, judging from the changes in the photochemical (qP) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) coefficients. Photoinhibition during drought in I. carnea and J. gossypifolia was evidenced in the field by a drop in the maximum quantum yield of PS2 (Fv/Fm) below 0.8 and also by non-coordinated changes in PS2 and quantum yield of non-photochemical excitation quenching (Yn). Total soluble protein content on an area basis increased with but the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase content remained unchanged. A reduction of total Chl content with drought was observed. Hence in the species studied photoinhibition occurred, which imposed an important limitation on carbon assimilation during drought.  相似文献
9.
Song J  Ding X  Feng G  Zhang F 《The New phytologist》2006,171(2):357-366
The effects of salinity and nitrogen (N) on growth and the role of NO3- in osmotic adjustment in the leaf-succulent euhalophyte Suaeda physophora and the stem-succulent xerophyte Haloxylon persicum were evaluated. Seedlings were exposed to 1 or 300 mm NaCl in 0.05, 1 or 10 mm NO3- -N treatments for 24 d. At 10 mm NO3-, 300 mm NaCl had no adverse effect on the concentration of NO3-, the content of organic N, and the estimated contribution of NO3- to osmotic potential in leaves of S. physophora, but markedly reduced these in stems of H. persicum. At 300 mm NaCl, more NO3- but less Cl- and Na+ were involved in osmotic adjustment in leaves of S. physophora compared with that in stems of H. persicum. The contribution of NO3- to osmotic potential was much higher in S. physophora, but lower in H. persicum, than that of amino acids at 300 mm NaCl. The nutritional and osmotic roles of NO3- -N seem to be more important in the euhalophyte S. physophora than in the xerophyte H. persicum under saline conditions. These characteristics may determine the natural distributions of the two species in saline or arid environments.  相似文献
10.
Water availability is a critical determinant for the growth and ecological distribution of terrestrial plants. Although some xerophytes are unique regarding their highly developed root architecture and the successful adaptation to arid environments, virtually nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this adaptation. Here, we report physiological and molecular responses of wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus sp.), which exhibits extraordinarily high drought resistance. At the early stage of drought stress, root development of wild watermelon was significantly enhanced compared with that of the irrigated plants, indicating the activation of a drought avoidance mechanism for absorbing water from deep soil layers. Consistent with this observation, comparative proteome analysis revealed that many proteins induced in the early stage of drought stress are involved in root morphogenesis and carbon/nitrogen metabolism, which may contribute to the drought avoidance via the enhancement of root growth. On the other hand, lignin synthesis-related proteins and molecular chaperones, which may function in the enhancement of physical desiccation tolerance and maintenance of protein integrity, respectively, were induced mostly at the later stage of drought stress. Our findings suggest that this xerophyte switches survival strategies from drought avoidance to drought tolerance during the progression of drought stress, by regulating its root proteome in a temporally programmed manner. This study provides new insights into the complex molecular networks within plant roots involved in the adaptation to adverse environments.  相似文献
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