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1.
螺旋粉虱在海南的分布与寄主植物种类调查   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
螺旋粉虱Aleurodicus disperses Russell是新入侵海南的外来有害生物,2006年4月在海南陵水已发现该虫传入。作者于2006年9月至2007年9月对螺旋粉虱在海南的分布与为害情况进行调查。调查结果,显示螺旋粉虱目前已分布至除昌江县和东方市以外的全岛其它15个市县,在吊罗山和尖峰岭保护区的林业局生活区也有分布;调查显示,螺旋粉虱寄主植物达47科120种,其中包括热带果树、蔬菜、热带作物、粮食作物、观赏与园艺作物,印度紫檀、榄仁树、番石榴、番木瓜、木薯、番荔枝、香蕉、茄子、四季豆等作物及美人蕉、飞扬草、野甘草等受害最为严重。对不同寄主植物的受害程度进行了初步划分,并对防控工作进行讨论。  相似文献
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螺旋粉虱的生物学特性   总被引:25,自引:1,他引:24       下载免费PDF全文
 螺旋粉虱Aleurodicus disperses Russell是一种新入侵海南的重要害虫。本文结合田间观察和室内实验, 对螺旋粉虱各虫态的形态特征及生物学特性进行了系统观察和研究。结果表明:螺旋粉虱世代的发育起点温度和有效积温分别为8.88℃和511.86日·度, 在海南一年可发生8~9代。在18~32℃恒温条件下, 螺旋粉虱世代发育历期为26.63~57.16 d, 其中卵期7.15~15.93 d, 1龄若虫期4.00~11.03 d, 2龄若虫期3.83~7.53 d, 3龄若虫期4.09~8.64 d, 拟蛹期7.56~14.03 d。在18~32℃条件下, 各虫态发育速率与温度呈抛物线关系, 但在18~28℃则为直线关系; 低温和高温都不利于其繁殖, 14℃恒温条件下无法完成世代发育。成虫不活跃, 活动有明显的规律性, 晴天活动多集中在上午, 阴天活动少, 雨天不活动。  相似文献
3.
温室白粉虱取食行为的刺探电位(EPG)研究   总被引:17,自引:2,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
 该文揭示了温室白粉虱Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood成虫及幼虫的刺探电位波形与其刺探、取食、产卵行为之间的对应关系,并讨论了这项技术在研究植物抗虫机理方面的应用价值。在成虫,A波、C波分别代表刺探的开始和进行过程;F波代表刺探过程中遇到机械障碍;G波表示吸食木质部导管汁液;E(pd)的(1)和(2)分别表示与取食韧皮部筛管汁液有关的两种行为;粉虱的产卵波形分为两种亚波,分别由Ovi-I和Ovi-II表示,各自代表产卵时的两种行为:产卵器接触并划破叶表皮及卵柄插入叶组织。在幼虫,H波代表吸食筛管液,而L波则表示在筛管细胞内的一种非吸食行为。幼虫蜕皮时先拔出口针,新龄期的幼虫将其口针重新刺入叶组织。  相似文献
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Mitochondrial 16S ( approximately 550 bp) and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) ( approximately 700 bp) sequences were utilized as markers to reconstruct a phylogeography for representative populations or biotypes of Bemisia tabaci. 16S sequences exhibited less divergence than COI sequences. Of the 429 characters examined for COI sequences, 185 sites were invariant, 244 were variable and 108 were informative. COI sequence identities yielded distances ranging from less than 1% to greater than 17%. Whitefly 16S sequences of 456 characters were analysed which consisted of 298 invariant sites, 158 variable sites and 53 informative sites. Phylogenetic analyses conducted by maximum parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods yielded almost identical phylogenetic reconstructions of trees that separated whiteflies based on geographical origin. The 16S and COI sequence data indicate that the B-biotype originated in the Old World (Europe, Asia and Africa) and is most closely related to B-like variants from Israel and Yemen, with the next closest relative being a biotype from Sudan. These data confirm the biochemical, genetic and behavioural polymorphisms described previously for B. tabaci. The consideration of all global variants of B. tabaci as a highly cryptic group of sibling species is argued.  相似文献
6.
粉虱座壳孢(Aschersonia aleyrodis)是粉虱的重要病原真菌,可用于世界性害虫烟粉虱(Bemisia tabaci)的生物防治。本文通过生物测定的方法,发现1-3龄幼虫易受真菌侵染,其中以2龄幼虫的侵染率为最高,达到98%;侵染率随处理时间延长、接种浓度增加而增大;被侵染粉虱幼虫死亡通常发生在处理后的下一个龄期。本文还应用扫描电镜和光学显微镜对粉虱座壳孢侵染烟粉虱的过程进行了研究,分生孢子在昆虫体表萌发、形成芽管后可产生附着胞或直接侵入表皮,昆虫节间膜等薄弱处是其侵染的主要部位,随后菌丝在昆虫体内形成,着胞或直接侵入表皮,昆虫节间膜等薄弱处是其侵染的主要部位如湿度足够高,菌丝穿出体表产孢再侵染新害虫。  相似文献
7.
烟粉虱成虫在日光温室内的分布和日活动规律   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11       下载免费PDF全文
侯茂林  文吉辉  卢伟 《生态学报》2006,26(5):1431-1437
采用中色粘虫板(黄板)和植株调查方法在河北省固安县日光温室内研究了烟粉虱成虫在黄瓜结瓜盛期(4月下旬~5月上旬)的分布和日活动规律。结果表明,温室北边平均诱集量((668·8±663·9)头/(板·d))是南边((357·5±349·4)头/(板·d))的1·87倍;除8∶00~10∶00以外,其他时段内北边诱集量均显著高于南边;同时,北边植株上烟粉虱成虫数量也显著高于南边。温室东边逐日和各时段诱集量均高于西边,但差异不显著。在垂直方向,烟粉虱成虫在黄瓜所有叶片上均有分布。烟粉虱成虫从6∶00~18∶00各时段均很活跃,但不同时段活动水平存在差异。8∶00~10∶00平均诱集比例最高(25·7%±9·7%),12∶00~14∶00最低(13·2%±5·2%);8∶00~10∶00的诱集量显著高于其他时段。另外,黄板南面诱集量((352·5±186·1)头/(板·d))显著高于北面诱集量((160·7±90·4)头/(板·d))。对日光温室黄瓜上烟粉虱的监测、成虫诱杀和综合治理的意义进行了讨论。  相似文献
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Mineral oil-based emulsifiable preparations of Beauveria bassiana (Bb) and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Pfr) conidia were separately applied alone or together with low rates of imidacloprid 10% WP at 4.7% (Im 1), 14.0% (Im 2), and 23.3% (Im 3) of its recommended application rate, respectively, against the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, on lettuce grown in the greenhouse. Besides eight fungal treatments, the three low application rates of imidacloprid in the oil-based carrier and a blank control (CK) were also included as treatments of the trials conducted in 2002 and 2003. For the 12 treatments of each trial with three replicates, 1,000-fold aqueous dilutions were sprayed twice on transplanted lettuce at a 15-day interval at a rate of ∼1.43×1013 conidia ha-1 for each fungal treatment or at one of the low rates of imidacloprid using a backpack hand-operated hydraulic sprayer. Based on whitefly densities, mortalities, relative efficacies and percent density declines estimated from whitefly counts made at 5-day intervals, all B. bassiana and P. fumosoroseus sprays were highly effective against T. vaporariorum compared to CK and Im 1-3 in both trials. In trial 1, the estimates of whitefly density decline and relative efficacy ranged from 44 and 72% (Bb) to 79 and 90% (Pfr+Im 2-3) on day 10 after the first spray and exceeded 94% for all fungal treatments 10 days after the second spray. Similar trends in whitefly control were also achieved in the corresponding treatments of trial 2. A more desirable and faster control resulted from fungal sprays containing more imidacloprid, but none of the three low imidacoprid rates alone suppressed the whitefly population more effectively than any fungal treatment despite a varying degree of efficacy. Moreover, P. fumosoroseus tended to be more effective against T. vaporariorum than B. bassiana when applied alone or together with the same low rate of imidacloprid but the difference in whitefly control eventually achieved was not significant between the two fungal agents. Thus, the emulsifiable preparations of both fungal agents can be considered as alternatives for whitefly management and for a slightly faster control can be applied together with imidacloprid at around 15% of its common application rate. An economic balance between the efficacy of whitefly control and the ease and cost of conidial production is needed when both fungi are incorporated into whitefly management.  相似文献
10.
Biological characteristics (oviposition and survival rates) and esterase banding patterns in native PAGE were investigated to evaluate variation among three populations of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae). Reproductive capabilities of whiteflies from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) populations were similar on the three host plant species tested. These populations, which had the same wild-type field origin, reproduced better on either cotton and pumpkin than on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow). In contrast, poinsettia whiteflies exhibited relatively similar reproductive capabilities for the three host species tested. Pumpkin and cotton whiteflies had similar esterase banding patterns (A type), while poinsettia whiteflies yielded a different banding pattern (B type). In transmission studies, whiteflies from cotton or pumpkin sources did not induce silverleaf (SSL) or white stem (WS) symptoms in Cucurbita spp. tested. In contrast, poinsettia whiteflies were associated routinely with SSL and WS symptoms in Cucurbita spp. following colonization by whitefly adults. From these data, it was possible to correlate a specific esterase banding pattern (A or B) with reproductive capabilities and the ability to induce SSL and WS symptoms.  相似文献
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