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1.
自由基与细胞凋亡   总被引:60,自引:1,他引:59       下载免费PDF全文
细胞凋亡是指细胞在生理和病理情况下的一种死亡模式,广泛涉及到肿瘤、衰老和退行性病变等一系列疾病.最近有实验表明自由基与细胞凋亡有密切的关系.凋亡细胞内活性氧自由基(ROS)生成增加,同时消除ROS的能力下降.大多数凋亡障碍的细胞表现出ROS分子大量减少,若调节细胞内ROS含量,死亡率能随之改变;离子辐射能通过经自由基引起细胞的凋亡,培养细胞在无血清或撤除生长因子后发生的死亡也大多与细胞内自由基代谢酶如过氧化氢酶等的活性变化有关.提示自由基是参与调节细胞凋亡的重要因素之一.  相似文献
2.
Epithelial cells contain complexes of cytokeratin filaments (tonofilaments) with specific domains of the plasma membrane that appear as symmetric junctions, i.e. desmosomes, or as asymmetric hemi-desmosomes. These regions of filament-membrane-attachment are characterized by 14 to 20 nm thick dense plaques (desmosomal plaque). In isolated desmosome-tonofilament complexes or other desmosomal fractions from various stratified squamous epithelia (e.g. bovine muzzle epidermis and tongue mucosa) desmosomal plaque structures are recognized and show a relatively high resistance to various extraction buffers and detergents. Such fractions enriched in desmosomal plaque material are also enriched in two prominent polypeptide bands of apparent molecular weights 250,000 (desmoplakin I) and 215,000 (desmoplakin II) which appear, on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, as two distinct polypeptides isoelectric near neutral pH. These two polypeptides are present in almost equimolar amounts and each of them appears as a series of isoelectric variants, including some labeled by [32P]phosphate in tissue slices. The two desmoplakin polypeptides are closely related as shown by tryptic peptide map analysis and are different from keratin-like proteins and other major polypeptides of desmosome-rich fractions. Guinea pig antibodies raised against desmoplakins and specific for these proteins do not cross-react with other desmosomal antigen(s) or constituents of other types of junctions. Using desmoplakin antibodies we have identified desmoplakins as the major constituents of the desmosomal plaques present in epithelial and myocardiac cells of diverse species. The significance of this group of cell type-specific membrane-associated cytoskeletal proteins and their possible cytoskeletal functions are discussed.  相似文献
3.
To analyze human tumors for the presence of mutated ras oncogenes, a procedure was developed based on selective hybridization of mutation-specific oligodeoxynucleotide probes to genomic DNA [Bos et al., Nucl. Acids Res. 12 (1984) 9155–9163]. We have improved this procedure both in sensitivity and speed by including an in vitro amplification step of ras-specific sequences. This amplification step has first been described by Saiki et al. [ Science 230 (1985) 1350–1353] and results in a more than 104-fold increase in the sequence which might contain the mutation. Furthermore, we have improved the selectivity of our hybridizations. As a result, mutated ras oncogenes can now be detected with a dot-blot screening procedure requiring less than 1 μg of tumor DNA.  相似文献
4.
Survivin inhibits apoptosis during development and carcinogenesis and is absent in differentiated cells. To determine whether survivin inhibition induces cell death in neural tumor cells, survivin antisense oligonucleotides (SAO) were administered to a human neuroblastoma (MSN) and an oligodendroglioma (TC620) resulting in a dose-dependent reduction in survivin protein. Although 74% of the SAO-treated MSN cells were trypan blue(+), PARP cleavage or activated caspase-3 was not observed. However nuclear translocation of AIF occurred and XIAP increased dramatically. Co-administration of z-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) with SAO did not inhibit cell death suggesting a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death. Propidium iodide (PI) staining revealed multiple large macronuclei with no apoptotic bodies supporting a role for survivin in cell division. By contrast, while 70% of the SAO-treated TC620 cells were trypan blue(+), PARP was cleaved, cells were TUNEL(+) and PI-staining revealed macronuclei and numerous apoptotic bodies. Co-treatment of the TC620 cells with SAO and zVAD-fmk blocked cell death. While no macronuclei or apoptotic bodies were observed there was a two-fold increase in metaphase cells. Our results suggest that survivin inhibition decreases the viability of human neural tumor cells and as a result of mitotic catastrophe, cell death can be initiated by either a classic apoptotic mechanism or a caspase-independent mechanism.  相似文献
5.
Efficiencies of a nuclease resistant antisense oligonucleotide and of siRNA both being targeted against the green fluorescent protein stably expressed in HeLa cells are compared in cell cultures and in xenografted mice. Using Cytofectin GSV to deliver both inhibitors, the siRNAs appear to be quantitatively more efficient and its effect is lasting for a longer time in cell culture. In mice, we observed an activity of siRNAs but not of antisense oligonucleotides. The absence of efficiency of antisense oligonucleotides is probably due to their lower resistance to nuclease degradation.  相似文献
6.
VEGF: an update on biological and therapeutic aspects   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and an angiogenic inducer as well as a mediator of vascular permeability. VEGF is essential for developmental angiogenesis and is also required for female reproductive functions and endochondral bone formation. Substantial evidence also implicates VEGF in tumors and intraocular neovascular syndromes. Currently, several clinical trials are ongoing to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of VEGF activity may be beneficial for these conditions.  相似文献
7.
A core function for p120-catenin in cadherin turnover   总被引:38,自引:0,他引:38  
p120-catenin stabilizes epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) in SW48 cells, but the mechanism has not been established. Here, we show that p120 acts at the cell surface to control cadherin turnover, thereby regulating cadherin levels. p120 knockdown by siRNA expression resulted in dose-dependent elimination of epithelial, placental, neuronal, and vascular endothelial cadherins, and complete loss of cell-cell adhesion. ARVCF and delta-catenin were functionally redundant, suggesting that proper cadherin-dependent adhesion requires the presence of at least one p120 family member. The data reveal a core function of p120 in cadherin complexes, and strongly predict a dose-dependent loss of E-cadherin in tumors that partially or completely down-regulate p120.  相似文献
8.
9.
Mouse pre-B cells synthesize and secrete mu heavy chains but not light chains   总被引:35,自引:0,他引:35  
D Levitt  M D Cooper 《Cell》1980,19(3):617-625
The immunoglobulins produced by the earliest recognizable B cell precursors (pre-B cells) were characterized in the mouse and human. Immunofluorescent analysis revealed no evidence of surface IgM components, and only mu heavy chains could be detected intracytoplasmically in pre-B cells. Surface IgM components could not be isolated from intact fetal liver cells that lacked sIgM+ B lymphocytes but possessed pre-B cells. Pre-B cells were shown to synthesize and secrete mu heavy chains but not light chains by immunochemical analysis. These mu chains constituted less than 0.01% of TCA precipitable protein synthesized and secreted by fetal liver cells during an 8 hr labelling period. Migration of both intracellular and secreted mu chains on SDS-PAGE suggested that they were smaller than mu chains secreted by mouse and human plasmacytomas. These data indicate that mu chain synthesis precedes light chain expression during B cell ontogeny and suggest a new role for pre-B cells in the generation and expression of a diverse immunoglobulin repertoire.  相似文献
10.
SHEEC食管癌细胞中NGAL基因的功能   总被引:33,自引:0,他引:33  
中性粒细胞明胶酶相关脂质运载蛋白 (neutrophilgelatinase associatedlipocalin ,NGAL)是脂质运载蛋白(lipocalin)家族的一个新成员 ,可能是人类的一种新的癌基因 ,但是在肿瘤中的功能不清楚。以往研究发现NGAL基因在SHEEC食管癌细胞中显著过表达 ,表明该细胞是一种用来揭示NGAL基因在肿瘤中功能的良好模型。采用反义封闭技术 ,同时结合裸鼠成瘤实验等研究了反义封闭NGAL基因转录对SHEEC食管癌细胞的浸润和分裂增殖等行为的影响。结果发现 ,反义封闭NGAL基因转录不但可以有效地降低SHEEC细胞分泌的基质金属蛋白酶 9和基质金属蛋白酶 2的活性 ,而与此同时裸鼠成瘤细胞的浸润行为也相应地受到了明显抑制 ,然而SHEEC细胞端粒的长度、拓扑异构酶II的含量以及细胞增殖指数等未发生明显变化。表明NGAL基因在食管癌细胞SHEEC中的功能可能主要是通过明胶酶在促进肿瘤细胞的浸润中发挥作用 ,而可能与肿瘤细胞分裂增殖的相关性不明显  相似文献
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