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1.
To investigate the effect of water stress on carbon metabolism in growing potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.), freshly cut and washed discs were incubated in a range of mannitol concentrations corresponding to external water potential between 0 and −1.2 MPa. (i) Incorporation of [14C]glucose into starch was inhibited in water-stressed discs, and labeling of sucrose was increased. High glucose overrode the changes at low water stress (up to −0.5 MPa) but not at high water stress. (ii) Although [14C]sucrose uptake increased in water-stressed discs, less of the absorbed [14C]sucrose was metabolised. (iii) Analysis of the sucrose content of the discs confirmed that increasing water deficit leads to a switch, from net sucrose degradation to net sucrose synthesis. (iv) In parallel incubations containing identical concentrations of sugars but differing in which sugar was labeled, degradation of [14C]sucrose and labeling of sucrose from [14C]glucose and fructose was found at each mannitol concentration. This shows that there is a cycle of sucrose degradation and resynthesis in these tuber discs. Increasing the extent of water stress changed the relation between sucrose breakdown and sucrose synthesis, in favour of synthesis. (v) Analysis of metabolites showed a biphasic response to increasing water deficit. Moderate water stress (0–200 mM mannitol) led to a decrease of the phosphorylated intermediates, especially 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA). The decrease of metabolites at moderate water stress was not seen when high concentrations of glucose were supplied to the discs. More extreme water stress (300–500 mM mannitol) was accompanied by an accumulation of metabolites at low and high glucose. (vi) Moderate water stress led to an activation of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) in discs, and in intact tubers. The stimulation involved a change in the kinetic properties of SPS, and was blocked␣by protein phosphatase inhibitors. (vii) The amount of ADP-glucose (ADPGlc) decreased when discs were incubated on 100 or 200 mM mannitol. There was a strong correlation between the in vivo levels of ADPGlc and 3PGA when discs were subjected to moderate water stress, and when the sugar supply was varied. (viii) The level of ADPGlc increased and starch synthesis was further inhibited when discs were incubated in 300–500 mM mannitol. (ix) It is proposed that moderate water stress leads to an activation of SPS and stimulates sucrose synthesis. The resulting decline of 3PGA leads to a partial inhibition of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and starch synthesis. More-extreme water stress leads to a further alteration of partitioning, because it inhibits the activities of one or more of the enzymes involved in the terminal reactions of starch synthesis. Received: 26 August 1996 / Accepted: 5 November 1996  相似文献
2.
Possible involvement of jasmonates in various morphogenic events   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Jasmonates (jasmonic acid and related compounds) seem to be involved in various morphogenic events of plants, such as tuberization (potato, yam and Jerusalem artichoke), tuberous root formation (sweet potato), bulb formation (onion and garlic), determination of plant structure (soybean) and thigmomorphogenesis (coiling of tendrils of Bryonia dioica ). The involvement of jasmonates in tuberization in these plants was inferred from their ability to induce tubers in vitro, and from changes in the levels of endogenous jasmonates during the growth of the plants, which can account for the initiation of tuberization. As to potato tuberization, jasmonic acid (JA) and its methyl ester (JA-Me) have strong tuber-inducing activity. These compounds seem to exert their tuber-inducing effects by elicting the expansion of cells, because JA and JA-Me are capable of causing the expansion of cells in potato tubers. The JA-induced expansion of cells is attributable to both an increase in osmotic pressure due to the accumulation of sucrose and changes in cell wall architecture that appear to affect the extensibility of the wall. And, moreover, the synthesis of cellulose might be indispensable for the JA-induced expansion. The tuberization and the expansion of cells induced by JA always involve the reorientation of cortical microtubules (MTs), suggesting that JA controls the direction of cell expansion by changing the arrangement of MTs. However, the reorientation of MTs itself seems to be insufficient for the induction of expansion of cells.
Involvement of jasmonates in bulb formation and tuberous root formation is presumed from the fact that JA is able to induce these in vitro. The exact nature of the control that the jasmonates exert on morphogenesis remains to be elucidated.  相似文献
3.
马铃薯块茎发育机理及其基因表达   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
柳俊  谢从华 《植物学通报》2001,18(5):531-539
马铃薯(Solanum tuberosum L.)块茎是有块茎马铃薯植物的地下变态器官,它由匍匐茎顶端膨大形成,对于马铃薯块茎形成的生理机制已有许多研究,这些研究表明,块茎发生受许多因素的影响,总体来讲短日 照,较低的温度以及离体条件下培养基较高的蔗糖浓度等有利于块茎形成,同时,块茎形成过程中内源激素亦发生一系列变化,然而,对于块茎形成中相关基因表达,进而调控块茎形成的系统研究目前还较滞后,已有研究显示,块茎形成与膨大涉及到一系列基因的表达与关闭,同时它也与淀粉合成和块茎储藏蛋白基因的表达有关,综述了这一领域现有的研究进展。  相似文献
4.
On the ecological and evolutionary significance of storage in clonal plants   总被引:18,自引:0,他引:18  
Environmental heterogeneity has received wide attention in clonal plant research over the last decade. Most studies have focussed on the effects of spatial variation in environmental conditions on the performance of ramets and genets, while the effects of temporal heterogeneity have only occasionally been studied. As a consequence, our current knowledge about functional responses of clonal plants to habitat patchiness is biased towards spatial aspects of environmental heterogeneity. Nevertheless, temporal changes in biotic and abiotic conditions do occur in most natural habitats, and they are very likely to affect plant growth and performance, and to create positive selection pressures on traits that can buffer plants against unfavorable consequences of this variability. Storage of resources is a widespread phenomenon in clonal plant species. Typical clonal structures such as stolons, rhizomes and hibernacles serve as storage organs. However, the ecologic significance of storage in clonal plant structures remains partly unclear. We suggest that the lack of understanding with respect to resource storage in clonal plants be related to our poor knowledge of ecologic implications of temporal habitat heterogeneity in natural environments. Resource storage can be understood as a safety measure against temporal changes in the growing conditions of plants. This paper summarizes existing information about the ecologic relevance of storage in clonal plants and it tries to develop a framework for further investigation of resource storage as a strategy to enhance the performance of clonal plants in temporally variable environments.  相似文献
5.
A potato molecular-function map for carbohydrate metabolism and transport   总被引:17,自引:7,他引:10  
Molecular-linkage maps based on functional gene markers (molecular-function maps) are the prerequisite for a candidate-gene approach to identify genes responsible for quantitative traits at the molecular level. Genetic linkage between a quantitative trait locus (QTL) and a candidate-gene locus is observed when there is a causal relationship between alleles of the candidate gene and the QTL effect. Functional gene markers can also be used for marker-assisted selection and as anchors for structural and functional comparisons between distantly related plant species sharing the same metabolic pathways. A first molecular-function map with 85 loci was constructed in potato based on 69 genes. Priority was given to genes operating in carbohydrate metabolism and transport. Public databases were searched for genes of interest from potato, tomato, or other plant species. DNA sequence information was used to develop PCR-based marker assays that allowed the localization of corresponding potato genes on existing RFLP linkage maps. Comparing the molecular-function map for genes operating in carbohydrate metabolism and transport with a QTL map for tuber starch content indicates a number of putative candidate genes for this important agronomic trait. Received: 19 March 2000 / Accepted: 16 May 2000  相似文献
6.
茉莉酸类与植物地下贮藏器官的形成   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
茉莉酸类化合物(茉莉酸及其衍生物)可能参与了马铃薯,薯蓣,菊芋的块茎,甘薯的块根以及洋葱,大蒜的鳞茎形成,JA及MeJA均可诱导离体下马铃薯块茎的形成和马铃薯髓部细胞的膨大,JA诱导细胞膨大是由于蔗糖积累导致渗透压增加以及细胞壁结构变化,从而使其伸展性增加,纤维素的合成起了重要作用,细胞骨架也是JA诱导细胞膨大所必需的,但迄今为止,尚未确定块茎形成的直接诱导物。  相似文献
7.
何首乌提取物对脂肪酸合酶的抑制作用   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
 最新报道脂肪酸合酶 (FAS)是治疗肥胖症的潜在靶部位 ,但目前已知的FAS抑制剂还很少 .测定表明 ,中药何首乌提取物对FAS同时具有很强的快结合可逆抑制和慢结合不可逆抑制作用 .萃取的最佳溶剂为 4 0 %乙醇水溶液 .该提取物对FAS全反应的半抑制浓度为 0 .0 0 5mg ml(以萃取时中药重量计 ) ;不可逆抑制过程为两相 ,在 0 4 6mg ml浓度下在 0 5min内快相失活超过 5 0 % ,慢相在 32min时失活达 90 % .该提取物对FAS中的酮酰还原反应有强抑制 ,半抑制浓度为 0 0 18mg ml,对烯酰还原反应有弱抑制作用 .抑制动力学分析表明 ,何首乌提取物对FAS的抑制和底物NADPH之间呈非竞争性关系 ,和丙二酰辅酶A接近竞争性关系 ,而与乙酰辅酶A为反竞争性关系 .推测何首乌还含有作用于FAS中的丙二酰转酰酶的抑制剂 .用何首乌提取物口服饲喂大鼠 ,可明显减低大鼠摄食量和降低大鼠体重 ;实验结束时实验组大鼠肝脏FAS活性低于对照组 .以上结果表明 ,中药何首乌提取物对FAS有很强的抑制作用 ,其抑制能力明显强于已知抑制剂 ,其动力学表现也和已知抑制剂完全不同 ,预计为新的抑制剂 ,对研究FAS的作用机理及在防治肥胖症的应用上可能具有重要的价值  相似文献
8.
The aim of this work was to establish whether plastidial phosphoglucomutase is involved in the starch biosynthetic pathway of potato tubers and thereby to determine the form in which carbon is imported into the potato amyloplast. For this purpose, we cloned the plastidial isoform of potato PGM (StpPGM), and using an antisense approach generated transgenic potato plants that exhibited decreased expression of the StpPGM gene and contained significantly reduced total phosphoglucomutase activity. We confirmed that this loss in activity was due specifically to a reduction in plastidial PGM activity. Potato lines with decreased activities of plastidial PGM exhibited no major changes in either whole-plant or tuber morphology. However, tubers from these lines exhibited a dramatic (up to 40%) decrease in the accumulation of starch, and significant increases in the levels of sucrose and hexose phosphates. As tubers from these lines exhibited no changes in the maximal catalytic activities of other key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, we conclude that plastidial PGM forms part of the starch biosynthetic pathway of the potato tuber, and that glucose-6-phosphate is the major precursor taken up by amyloplasts in order to support starch synthesis.  相似文献
9.
10.
水杨酸对马铃薯试管微薯形成的影响研究   总被引:12,自引:1,他引:11  
研究了不同浓度水杨酸(SA)对马铃薯脱毒试管苗生长,分化及试管微薯诱导和发育的 浓度SA显著抑帛式管苗主茎和根的生长,促进侧枝和匍匐茎分化。高浓度(0.1-1.0mmol/L)SA能诱导试管微薯形成并显著提高结薯率。SA浓度为0.5mmol/L时,结薯率最高,且成薯集中,薯块大小整齐一致。  相似文献
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