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1.
基于MODIS/NDVI的陕北地区植被动态监测与评价   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
陕北地区从1999年退耕还林试点工程实施以来,区域植被发生很大变化,退耕前后植被动态变化监测成为退耕还林工程评价任务之一,而当前植被恢复监测评价的难点在于如何确定哪些是由于退耕而引起的植被变化。针对此问题,选取适合陕北地区植被变化监测的MODIS/NDVI数据,利用均值变化及趋势分析方法,从不同土地利用/覆被类型和不同坡度植被指数动态变化两方面分析退耕还林对植被动态变化的影响。结论如下:(1)陕北地区平均NDVI从2000-2008年呈现较明显的增长趋势,坡耕地和草地NDVI增长速度相对较快;(2)趋势分析结果显示,陕北绝大部分地区植被恢复良好,植被指数呈明显改善的面积占整个地区面积的64.96%,中度改善占18.58%,其中又以坡耕地、草地植被明显改善面积分别占陕北地区明显改善面积的45.43%和17.10%,坡耕地对陕北地区植被明显改善面积贡献最大;(3)7 15°、15 25°及25 35°坡度植被明显改善面积分别占总改善面积的39.91%、25.81%、2.28%,其中7 25°坡度植被明显改善面积占总面积的65.72%;(4)基于陕北地区近年气候呈暖干化发展趋势,同期降雨并未呈现显著变化,说明非气候因子中退耕还林等人为因素是引起NDVI增长的主要因素,退耕还林对于陕北地区植被恢复有明显促进作用。  相似文献
2.
We investigated the atmospheric concentrations and deposition fluxes of major ions to the Turkey Lakes Watershed (TLW) between 1980 and 1996. During that time, daily SO4 2− concentrations in precipitation decreased markedly, while NO3 , NH4 +, and H+ concentrations remained roughly constant. It appears that precipitation acidity did not decrease in spite of declining SO4 2− concentrations due to a concurrent and counterbalancing decrease in the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ in precipitation. The reasons for the decline in base cations are unknown, but this decline is probably related to decreasing emissions of soil-derived particles from agricultural, industrial, and road sources. A similar situation was seen during the same period in other parts of Canada, the eastern United States, and Europe. Wet, dry, and total (wet + dry) deposition fluxes of sulphur (S) and nitrogen (N) were estimated annually for the years 1980–96. The 17-year mean annual total (wet + dry) deposition of S to the watershed was estimated at 38.5 mmol m−2 y−1 (range 24.3–50.3). Total S deposition decreased by 35% from the early 1980s (1982–84) to the mid-1990s (1994–96), a decline consistent with the 23% decline in annual SO2 emissions in eastern North America during the same period. In contrast, the annual total (wet + dry) deposition of oxidized N ranged from 39.8 to 60.4 mmol m−2 y−1, with a 15-year mean of 50.1 mmol m−2 y−1 and a net increase of 10% between the early 1980s (1983–85) and the mid-1990s (1994–96). This is in keeping with a 10% increase in NOx emissions in eastern North America during the same period. For both S and N (oxidized), wet deposition dominated over dry deposition as the major mechanism for atmospheric input to the watershed. Annually, wet deposition accounted for approximately two-thirds of the total atmospheric deposition of both S and N. Dry S deposition was due more to gaseous SO2 deposition (two-thirds of dry S deposition) than to particulate SO4 2− deposition (one-third of dry S deposition). Dry deposition of oxidized N, however, was dominated (95%) by gaseous HNO3 deposition, with minimal input from particulate NO3 deposition. Compared to several selected watershed/forest sites in Canada, the United States, and Europe, the estimated total deposition of S and N at the TLW was relatively high during the measurement period. Received 5 October 1999; accepted 1 March 2001.  相似文献
3.
2000-2010年黄河流域植被覆盖的时空变化   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
黄河流域位于干旱、半干旱和半湿润地区,生态环境脆弱,近年来,在气候变化和人类活动影响下,植被覆盖状况发生了变化。因此需要对黄河流域植被覆盖的变化进行监测,进而掌握流域植被的动态变化特征。在此背景下,利用2000-2010年的250 m分辨率的MOD13Q1数据来研究黄河流域植被覆盖区域的NDVI时空变化特征。采用Theil-Sen Median趋势分析和Mann-Kendall检验来研究NDVI的变化趋势特征,通过对Theil-Sen Median趋势分析和Mann-Kendall检验的结果和Hurst指数的结果的叠加,来研究NDVI的可持续特征。研究表明:1)从空间分布上看,黄河流域NDVI呈现出西部和东南部高,北部低的特征;2)从时间变化特征上看,2000-2010年植被覆盖区域年均NDVI均值在0.3-0.4之间波动,其中2000-2004年NDVI波动较大,但自2005年以来NDVI呈现快速增长的趋势;3)从变化趋势上看,2000-2010年黄河流域植被改善的区域远远大于退化的区域,改善的区域占植被覆盖区域总面积的62.9%,退化的区域占27.7%,9.4%的区域NDVI稳定不变;4)从可持续性来看,86.0%的植被覆盖区域NDVI呈现正向可持续性,即NDVI的可持续性较强;由变化趋势与Hurst指数的耦合信息得出,持续改善的面积占植被覆盖区域总面积的53.7%,持续稳定不变的区域占7.8%,持续退化的区域占24.5%,另外14.0%的区域未来变化趋势无法确定,持续退化和未来变化趋势无法确定区域的植被变化状况需要研究人员继续关注。  相似文献
4.
基于卫星遥感数据的黄淮海地区植被覆盖时空变化特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
利用1982—2003年GIMMS NDVI遥感数据,在进行合成、重采样和时间序列滤波处理的基础上,采用线性趋势分析、经验正交函数分解等方法,对中国黄淮海地区植被覆盖的时空特征进行了研究。结果表明:22年来黄淮海地区植被覆盖总体上呈略微增加的趋势,且该区域生长季有提前和延长的趋势;黄淮海大部分地区植被活动在增强的同时,局部地区出现了植被退化现象;从季节变化上看,春季上升和夏季下降趋势明显;林地为主的自然植被、草甸类自然植被和所有农业植被未变化类别占主导地位,而草原植被则以增加趋势为主。主要生长季的NDVI距平EOF分析表明,第1模态的主要特征是区域中间、北部和南端为正,四周为负变化;第2模态的主要特征是从东南向西北由正到负变化且正值区明显偏多;第3模态从东南向西北呈现正-负-正的空间分布,其中负值区大部分为以林地为主的自然植被区和一年一熟农业植被,正值区大部分为农耕区和草原牧区,该模态大致反映了农牧区和林区的NDVI分布型。  相似文献
5.
王耕  王利  吴伟 《生态学报》2007,27(5):2002-2011
在实际生产生活中人们关注的不仅是基于P-S-R(压力-状态-响应)框架的生态安全状态评价,而是未来生态安全灾变态势问题。灾变是由风险演变而来。存在生态安全隐患,就存在生态安全灾变的风险,生态安全隐患是生态安全灾变的风险源。生态安全灾变风险是指在一定区域内,由于各种隐患因素对人与自然环境复合生态系统可能产生的危害作用,从而使生态安全状态所承受的恶化和灾变的可能性,是人们不能确切把握且不愿接受的安全状态恶化的一种态势。以区域突发型生态安全隐患和缓发型生态安全隐患的危害作用为研究对象,采用生态风险评价和地理信息系统(GIS)分析技术相结合的方法,以辽河流域为实例探讨了生态安全灾变态势的理论与方法。  相似文献
6.
某焦化场地土壤多环芳烃污染数据的统计特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
分析污染场地调查数据的统计特征能够帮助判别污染物在场地中的空间变异特征以及污染来源和成因.本文以我国某焦化场地为对象,对采集的表层土壤114个样点16种多环芳烃(PAHs)含量数据进行多元统计和空间特征分析.结果表明:每种污染物的含量范围差异显著,具有高度的偏倚性;多元统计分析提取的前2个主成分可以有效代表原场地污染数据信息.选择苯并(a)蒽、苯并(b,k)荧蒽、苯并(a)芘和茚并(1,2,3-cd)芘4种污染物进行趋势分析和空间局部变异分析,在场地的东西和南北方向的污染物含量均表现出由低到高再到低的变化趋势,空间变异系数在场地的中部、西北及西南较高,其他区域变异系数较低.  相似文献
7.
2000-2012年京津风沙源治理区植被覆盖时空演变特征   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
严恩萍  林辉  党永峰  夏朝宗 《生态学报》2014,34(17):5007-5020
植被是陆地生态系统的主体,分析长时期植被覆盖变化,有助于揭示陆地生态环境的演变规律。研究以京津风沙源重点治理区的MODIS02B产品为数据源,通过数据处理获得2000-2012年的NDVI(Normalized difference vegetation index)时序数据集,采用线性趋势分析、标准差、Hurst指数和相关系数等方法,分析京津风沙源重点治理区植被覆盖的时空变化特征及影响因子。结果显示:(1)近13年来,治理区植被覆盖总体呈上升趋势(R2=0.70),2012 年NDVI值达最大值0.324,比2000年增加了135.62%。但增加速率和幅度各异:北部干旱区(Bbghq)增加速度最快,浑善达克区(Hsdkq)次之,农牧交错区(Nmjcq)植被变化相对稳定。(2)工程区地表植被覆盖改善区域的面积明显大于退化区域,其中得到改善且通过显著性检验(P =0.10)的区域约占总面积的94.31%;Hurst指数分析表明,工程区植被变化整体呈中强持续性特征,面积合计约占64.48%;综合分析表明,工程区植被变化以良性发展为主,特别是强持续性的退化区和弱持续性的改善区值得关注,二者合计占35.27%。(3)人类活动是京津风沙地区植被覆盖上升的重要驱动因素;自然因素中,降水是控制工程区植被生长的主要因子,温度的影响相对较弱。  相似文献
8.
Information from four archival literature sources from the late 19th century was matched to present-day plant species distribution data for the region of Turnhout (Belgium) and for 15 smaller sub-regions within this region. In the entire study area 25% of the species recorded in the late 19th century went extinct during the 20th century and the extinction rate doubled at the more detailed sub-region level. Binary survival-extinction data and continuous residuals from a linear regression between historical and present-day abundance categories were used to investigate underlying ecological factors of change including habitat preference, ecological amplitude and life strategy. Species increasing relative to the overall trend were generally correlated with nutrient-rich habitats while declining species were more associated with nutrient-poor situations. Generalist species have become relatively more common whilst habitat specialists have strongly declined, resulting in a flora with many ‘losers’ and a few tolerant ‘winners’. The winners are often competitive species while the losers are mainly stress-tolerating species and species with combined life strategies (e.g. SC, SR). Correlations between the decline of historically present habitats and extinction rates of related habitat specialist species show clear trends. We suggest the most important factors involved in changes in flora diversity and vegetation composition are habitat loss due to urbanization and habitat deterioration, mainly due to agricultural intensification.  相似文献
9.
Twenty-five species of fishes belonging to 18 genera, 7 families under the order siluriformes have been recorded from different freshwater and brackish water wetlands of South West Bengal, India. Fishery potential of 17 commercially important siluroid fishes were noted especially from market surveys as well as from information collected from local fishermen communities. Following the IUCN guidelines, and also through Participatory Rural Appraisal (P.R.A.) methods, an attempt has been made to assess the conservation status of such fishes, many of which are thought to be threatened. Trend analysis, Fish Magnitude Value and Rank based Quotient revealed the threatened status of 17 siluroid fishes.  相似文献
10.
Since 1979, fishery-independent data and fishery-dependent data have been used to estimate trends in the abundance of the northeastern stock of spotted dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific. Data collected aboard tuna vessels have been used to estimate trends in relative abundance, while data collected from fishery-independent research vessels have been used to estimate trends in actual abundance. One of the largest discrepancies between the two data sources is that tuna vessels tend to report dolphin schools that are 400%—500% larger than schools observed by research vessels. After comparing research vessel and tuna vessel observations overlapping in space and time, it appears that either measurement error or selective reporting of large schools is the most likely explanation for the disparity. Comparing single-species schools against portions of mixed- species schools introduced bias. Revised fishery-dependent abundance estimates were generated using only single-species dolphin schools, resulting in estimates that appear more similar to recent fishery-independent abundance estimates.
correctable in fishery-dependent data, suggesting that data on mixed-species schools should not be considered if fishery-dependent data are to be combined with fishery-independent data for stock assessment purposes.  相似文献
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