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1.
蓟马采集和玻片标本的制作   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
张宏瑞  OKAJIMA Sh 《昆虫知识》2006,43(5):725-728
介绍蓟马标本的采集方法、常规鉴定用的临时性玻片和存档及分类用的永久性玻片标本的制作方法。标本的采集主要是拍打植物花朵、叶片及枯枝,玻片的制作重点介绍了制作存档和分类用的永久性玻片的5个步骤,即浸解脱色、洗涤、脱水、整姿封盖和干燥。  相似文献
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用凹玻片饲养棕榈蓟马   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
用 2 5.4 mm× 76.2 mm,凹面直径为 18mm的两片凹玻片 ,相对合在一起 ,使凹面相对合而形成一个封闭的空间 ,组成小型的饲养器 ,内放 10 mm× 10 mm新鲜的茄子叶片 ,供虫子取食并保湿。应用凹玻片饲养棕榈蓟马技术 ,具有装置简单、不易逃逸、操作方便以及便于在显微镜下连续观察等特点。在2 0 ,2 5,2 8,30和 32℃下 ,用凹玻片饲养 ,棕榈蓟马从初孵若虫到羽化成虫阶段的成活率分别为 77.78% ,65.96% ,82 .61% ,66.67%和 56.52 %。  相似文献
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入侵害虫西花蓟马及其他8种常见蓟马的分子鉴定   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10       下载免费PDF全文
  用PCR产物直接测序法对入侵害虫西花蓟马和其他8种蓟马的线粒体 COⅠ基因433 bp片段测序,获得62个个体的序列。分子数据分析显示: 种内个体间平均遗传距离在0~0.005之间,2003年在北京发现的西花蓟马与欧洲等地区报导的西花蓟马不存在明显的遗传差异; 9种蓟马种间平均遗传距离为0.213。构建的NJ树可以很好的显示蓟马的聚类,物种各单元型最初分支自展值均达到100%。结果表明,基于PCR及直接测序技术的分子鉴定可以达到准确鉴定蓟马物种之目的。  相似文献
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西花蓟马的鉴别及其与近缘种的区别   总被引:7,自引:2,他引:5  
刘宁  任立  张润志  郑建秋  王福祥 《昆虫知识》2005,42(3):345-347,F003
西花蓟马是我国2003年在北京新发现的外来入侵害虫,因虫体很小鉴定困难。该文提供了西花蓟马详细的形态鉴别特征,同时给出了与西花蓟马相似的烟蓟马、花蓟马和佛罗里达花蓟马共4种花蓟马的鉴定检索表。  相似文献
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棕榈蓟马在茄子上的种群增长、分布和抽样技术研究   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
棕榈蓟马在茄子上的种群增长,用种群增长模型来分析,露地栽培的成虫、若虫种群增长率r分别为0.0630和0.0801,设施栽培分别为0.0983和0.1036。设施栽培的逻辑斯蒂曲线的K值为33.90,明显大于露地栽培的K值23.50。棕榈蓟马种群在茄子上空间分布调查结果,成、若虫的M^*-M回归式分别为M=0.6011+1.468M和M^*=7.2515+2.0640M。成虫+若虫的M-M回归式为  相似文献
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Neoseiulus barkeri (= Amblyseius mckenziei) and Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari:Phytoseiidae) are used as control agents of Thrips tabaci (Insecta:Thripidae) in greenhouse crops. Their success in capturing prey larval stages is related to both the feeding state of the predators and to the size of the larvae. When starved, predators are more successful in seizing larvae. Upon contact with a starved predator second stage prey larvae incur a lower death risk than first stage larvae. The larvae of T. tabaci reduce the attack success of their predators by jerking the abdomen and by producing a drop of rectal fluid. When this defensive behaviour is prevented by anaesthetising the larvae with CO2, predator attack success increases. Anaesthesia does not, however, level out the difference in death risk of the two larval stages. Conceivable causes for this discrepancy are discussed.Availability of suitable prey is dependent on the dynamics of the age structure of the prey population and, hence, may be lower than total thrips density suggests. If so, alternative food sources may be important to maintain the predator population.
Zusammenfassung Neoseiulus barkeri (= Amblyseius mckenziei) und Amblyseius cucumeris (Acari: Phytoseiidae) werden zur Bekämpfung von Thrips tabaci (Insecta: Thripidae) in Gewächshauskulturen eingesetzt. Sowohl der Ernährungszustand der räuberischen Milben als auch die Grösse der Thripslarven haben Einfluss auf das Ausmass der Beutenahme. Die Prädatoren sind erfolgreicher, wenn sie eine Zeitlang ohne Nahrung gehalten wurden. Beim Zusammentreffen mit einer ausgehungerten Raubmilbe besteht für Thripslarven des zweiten Stadiums ein geringeres Risiko erbeutet und gefressen zu werden als für Larven des ersten Stadiums. T. tabaci Larven mindern den Angriffserfolg der Prädatoren durch kräftiges Hin- und Herschlagen des Abdomens und durch Abgabe eines Tropfens Rektalflüssigkeit. Wird dieses Abwehrverhalten der Larven durch Anaästhesie mit CO2 verhindert, erhöht sich der Angriffserfolg der Prädatoren. Anästhesie nivelliert jedoch nicht das für beide Larvenstadien unterschiedlich hohe Risiko erbeutet zu werden. Mögliche Ursachen für diesen Unterschied werden diskutiert.Die Verfügbarkeit geeigneter Beutetiere hängt ab von der zeitlichen Entwicklung der Altersstruktur ihrer Population. Das Angebot an wirklich geeigneten Beutetieren kan also unter Umständen geringer sein, als dies die Gesamtthripsdichte zunächst vermuten lässt. Ist das der Fall, dürften alternative Nahrungsquellen für die Ernährung der Prädatorenpopulation wichtig sein.
  相似文献
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In greenhouse studies, we evaluated a commercial formulation of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae and the inoculative release of the thrips-parasitic nematode Thripinema nicklewoodi against western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande infesting potted chrysanthemums. Foliar sprays of S. feltiae applied at 1.25-2.5×103 IJ mL-1 and 1000 - 2000 L ha-1 at 3-day intervals alone (targeting feeding stages) or in combination with soil applications (simultaneously treating non-feeding stages in the soil at the same rates) decreased but did not provide adequate control of thrips in flowering plants artificially infested with a dense population. Similar nematode treatments applied for four to five applications at 6-day intervals in two batches of initially clean chrysanthemums failed to prevent unacceptable damage to flowers and leaves from a dense natural infestation within the greenhouse. Although some IJ survived up to 48 h within flowers and flower buds, few nematode-infected thrips (larvae and adults) were recovered. In studies with T. nicklewoodi (which is not amenable for mass production), the inoculative releases of two parasitized hosts per plant enabled the nematode to become established within existing WFT populations under greenhouse conditions. However, relatively poor transmission and slow speed of kill (nematode primarily suppresses populations through host sterilization) prevented low level inoculations being effective over a single crop cycle. Further studies showed that transmission of T. nicklewoodi persisted for nine host generations, infected up to 83% of adult thrips and provided long-term suppression of discrete caged populations, but only after uneconomically high thrips densities had been reached.  相似文献
10.
Abstract 1. Predatory arthropods lay their eggs such that their offspring have sufficient prey at their disposal and run a low risk of being eaten by conspecific and heterospecific predators, but what happens if the prey attacks eggs of the predator?
2. The egg distribution and time allocation of adult female predatory mites Iphiseius degenerans as affected by predation of their eggs by prey, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis , were studied on sweet pepper plants. The predatory mites attack the first instar of thrips but all active stages of thrips are capable of killing the eggs of the predator; however the predatory mite is used for biological control of thrips.
3. The majority of predatory mite eggs was laid on the underside of leaves in hair tufts (domatia). During the experiment, females spent increasing amounts of time in flowers where they fed on pollen and thrips larvae. The risk of predation on predator eggs by thrips was lower on leaves than in flowers where the majority of thrips resides. Moreover, predation risk was higher outside leaf domatia than inside.
4. This suggests that predators avoid ovipositing in places with abundant prey to prevent their eggs from being eaten by thrips.  相似文献
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