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1.
东北地区黑线仓鼠的代谢产热特征及其体温调节   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
为探讨寒冷地区黑线仓鼠 (Cricetulusbarabensis)的代谢产热特征及体温调节 ,本文采用封闭式流体压力呼吸仪对其代谢率、热传导和体温等热生物学指标进行了测定。结果显示 :在环境温度为 5~ 35℃的范围内 ,黑线仓鼠的体温基本维持恒定 ,平均体温为 36 33± 0 2 3℃ ;热中性区为 2 5~ 32 5℃ ;基础代谢率为 3 4 9±0 36mlO2 / (g·h) ;环境温度 (Ta)在 5~ 2 5℃范围内 ,代谢率 (MR)与Ta 呈负相关 ,回归方程为 :MR [mlO2 / (g·h) ]=9 6 0 - 0 2 2Ta (℃ ) ,在此范围内 ,黑线仓鼠的热传导率 (C)最低 ,平均为 0 2 8± 0 0 1mlO2 /(g·h·℃ ) ;代谢预期比和热传导预期比 (F值 )为 1 6 8。黑线仓鼠的基本热生物学特征为 :较高的BMR和热传导率 ,相对较低的体温和较宽的热中性区。这些特征可能限制了其在极端寒冷和干旱环境中的分布和生存.  相似文献
2.
1. The thermoregulatory capabilities of 18 species of Alaskan bees spanning nearly two orders of magnitude of body mass were measured. Thoracic temperature, measured across the temperature range at which each species forages, was regressed against operative (environmental) temperature to determine bees' abilities to maintain relatively constant thoracic temperatures across a range of operative temperatures (thermoregulatory performance).
2. Previous studies on insect thermoregulation have compared thoracic temperature with ambient air temperature. Operative temperature, which integrates air temperature, solar radiation and effects of wind, was estimated by measuring the temperature of a fresh, dead bee in the field environment. It is suggested that this is a more accurate measure of the thermal environment experienced by the insect and also allows direct comparisons of insects under different microclimate conditions, such as in sun and shade.
3. Simple regression analysis of species and family means, and analysis of phylogenetically based independent contrasts showed thermoregulatory capability, ability to elevate thoracic temperature, and minimum thoracic temperature necessary for initiating flight all increased with body size.
4. Bumble-bees were better thermoregulators than solitary bees primarily as a consequence of their larger body size. However, their thermoregulatory abilities were slightly, but significantly, better than predicted from body size alone, suggesting an added role of pelage and/or physiology. Large solitary bees were better thermoregulators than small solitary bees apparently as a result of body-size differences, with small bees acting as thermal conformers.  相似文献
3.
高原鼠兔蒸发失水的地位及热能调节   总被引:9,自引:4,他引:5  
王德华  王祖望 《兽类学报》1993,13(2):104-113
本文对高原鼠兔(Ochotona curzoniae)的静止代谢率(RMR)、蒸发失水(EWL)、非颤抖性产热(NST)等能学参数进行了测定,计算了干燥热传导(dry C)、热能调节热标(TI)等,评估了蒸发散热(EHL)在热传导(C)中的地位,结果表明:高原鼠兔的基础代谢率(BMR)和最小热传导(C_m)均高于期望值;25℃以上EHL占有重要地位;热能调节能力较好,但抗高温能力较差;这些特征对于栖居在年气温差较小、日温差大的高寒环境中的高原鼠兔具重要的适应意义。  相似文献
4.
内蒙古浑善达克沙地小毛足鼠的能量代谢和体温调节   总被引:7,自引:5,他引:2  
战新梅  王德华 《兽类学报》2004,24(2):152-159
为了解小毛足鼠对沙漠生境的适应特征,对其能量代谢和体温调节特征进行了测定。代谢率采用封闭式流体压力呼吸计测定,非颤抖性产热用皮下注射去甲肾上腺素诱导,能量摄入采用食物平衡法测定。结果显示:小毛足鼠的热中性区为25~33℃,平均体温为35 7±0 1℃,最小热传导率为0 21±0 01mlO2/g·h·℃,基础代谢率为2 61±0 04mlO2/g·h,最大非颤抖性产热为8 53±0 28mlO2/g·h,非颤抖性产热范围(最大非颤抖性产热与基础代谢率的比率)为3 3。基础代谢率和非颤抖性产热都高于以体重为基础的期望值,最小热传导接近期望值。小毛足鼠的摄入能为2 26±0 12kJ/g·d;消化能为2 18±0 13kJ/g·d;消化率为97±0 2%;可代谢能为2 13±0 12kJ/g·d;可代谢能效率为94±1 2%。这些结果表明小毛足鼠对沙地生境的适应特征是:基础代谢率较高,体温相对较低,最小热传导率与期望值相当,热中性区较宽,下临界温度较低;较高的最大非颤抖性产热和非颤抖性产热范围以及较高的食物消化效率。  相似文献
5.
6.
Diets rich in unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids have a positive effect on mammalian torpor, whereas diets rich in saturated fatty acids have a negative effect. To determine whether the number of double bonds in dietary fatty acids are responsible for these alterations in torpor patterns, we investigated the effect of adding to the normal diet 5% pure fatty acids of identical chain length (C18) but a different number of double bonds (0, 1, or 2) on the pattern of hibernation of the yellow-pine chipmunk, Eutamias amoenus. The response of torpor bouts to a lowering of air temperature and the mean duration of torpor bouts at an air temperature of 0.5°C (stearic acid C18:0, 4.5±0.8 days, oleic acid C18:1, 8.6±0.5 days; linoleic acid C18:2, 8.5±0.7 days) differed among animals that were maintained on the three experimental diets. The mean minimum body temperatures (C18:0, +2.3±0.3°C; C18:1, +0.3±0.2°C; C18:2,-0.2±0.2°C), which torpid individuals defended by an increase in metabolic rate, and the metabolic rate of torpid animals also differed among diet groups. Moreover, diet-induced differences were observed in the composition of total lipid fatty acids from depot fat and the phospholipid fatty acids of cardiac mitochondria. For depot fat 7 of 13 and for heart mitochondria 7 of 14 of the identified fatty acids differed significantly among the three diet groups. Significant differences among diet groups were also observed for the sum of saturated, unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. These diet-induced alterations of body fatty acids were correlated with some of the diet-induced differences in variables of torpor. The results suggest that the degree of unsaturation of dietary fatty acids influences the composition of tissues and membranes which in turn may influence torpor patterns and thus survival of hibernation.Abbreviations bm body mass - T a air temperature - T b body temperature - FA fatty acid - MR metabolic rate - MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids - PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids - VO2 rate of oxygen consumption - SFA saturated fatty acids - UFA unsaturated fatty acids - UI unsaturation index - SNK Student-Newman-Keuls test  相似文献
7.
Human morphology and temperature regulation   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one’s thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one’s ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one’s ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress. Received: 6 May 1999 / Accepted: 14 July 1999  相似文献
8.
多疣壁虎的体温调节及运动能力热依赖性   总被引:6,自引:2,他引:4  
胡凌君  杜卫国 《动物学报》2007,53(2):227-232
本文测定了多疣壁虎(Gekko japonicus)的野外活动体温、喜好体温以及运动能力热依赖性,探讨夜行性蜥蜴的体温调节及其对动物功能表达的作用。在自然条件下,多疣壁虎的活动体温存在明显的月份间差异,但无性别和年龄间的差异。在实验室条件下,怀卵雌体(29.8℃)和幼体(29.9℃)的喜好体温显著高于非怀卵雌体(28.5℃)和雄体(28.2℃)。体温能显著影响多疣壁虎的运动能力,在15℃-34℃范围内,其平均跑速随体温上升而加快,超过34℃后则随体温升高而减慢。多疣壁虎的平均跑速及其热敏感性无显著的年龄组间差异。在夜间活动期,雄体、非怀卵雌体和幼体的体温调节有效度低,而怀卵雌体的体温调节有效度则较高。结果显示怀卵雌体的体温调节较非怀卵雌体和雄体更精确  相似文献
9.
J. Schmid 《Oecologia》2000,123(2):175-183
Patterns and energetic consequences of spontaneous daily torpor were measured in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) under natural conditions of ambient temperature and photoperiod in a dry deciduous forest in western Madagascar. Over a period of two consecutive dry seasons, oxygen consumption (VO2) and body temperature (T b) were measured on ten individuals kept in outdoor enclosures. In all animals, spontaneous daily torpor occurred on a daily basis with torpor bouts lasting from 3.6 to 17.6 h, with a mean torpor bout duration of 9.3 h. On average, body temperatures in torpor were 17.3±4.9°C with a recorded minimum value of 7.8°C. Torpor was not restricted to the mouse lemurs’ diurnal resting phase: entries occurred throughout the night and arousals mainly around midday, coinciding with the daily ambient temperature maximum. Arousal from torpor was a two-phase process with a first passive, exogenous heating where the T b of animals increased from the torpor T b minimum to a mean value of 27.1°C before the second, endogenous heat production commenced to further raise T b to normothermic values. Metabolic rate during torpor (28.6±13.2 ml O2 h–1) was significantly reduced by about 76% compared to resting metabolic rate (132.6±50.5 ml O2 h–1). On average, for all M. murinus individuals measured, hypometabolism during daily torpor reduced daily energy expenditure by about 38%. In conclusion, all these energy-conserving mechanisms of the nocturnal mouse lemurs, with passive exogenous heating during arousal from torpor, low minimum torpor T bs, and extended torpor bouts into the activity phase, comprise an important and highly adapted mechanism to minimize energetic costs in response to unfavorable environmental conditions and may play a crucial role for individual fitness. Received: 8 July 1999 / Accepted: 3 December 1999  相似文献
10.
House finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) from the introduced population in the eastern United States were examined to assess metabolic characteristics and aspects of body composition associated with seasonal acclimatization. Wild birds were captured during winter (January and February) and late spring (May and June) in southeastern Michigan. Standard metabolic rates did not differ seasonally, but cold-induced peak metabolic rate was 28% greater in winter than late spring. The capacity to maintain elevated metabolic rates during cold exposure (thermogenic endurance) increased significantly from an average of 26.1 to 101.3 min in late spring and winter, respectively. House finches captured in the late afternoon during winter had twice as much stored fat as those during late spring. Both the wet mass and lean dry mass of the pectoralis muscle, a primary shivering effector, were significantly greater during winter. The seasonal changes in peak metabolism and thermogenic endurance demonstrate the existence and magnitude of metabolic seasonal acclimatization in eastern house finches. Increased quantities of stored fat during winter appear to play a role in acclimatization, yet other physiological adjustments such as lipid mobilization and catabolism are also likely to be involved.Abbreviations bm body mass(es) - MR metabolic rate(s) - MR peak peak metabolic rate(s) - SMR standard metabolic rate(s)  相似文献
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