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1.
Sulfate transporters present at the root surface facilitate uptake of sulfate from the environment. Here we report that uptake of sulfate at the outermost cell layers of Arabidopsis root is associated with the functions of highly and low-inducible sulfate transporters, Sultr1;1 and Sultr1;2, respectively. We have previously reported that Sultr1;1 is a high-affinity sulfate transporter expressed in root hairs, epidermal and cortical cells of Arabidopsis roots, and its expression is strongly upregulated in plants deprived of external sulfate. A novel sulfate transporter gene, Sultr1;2, identified on the BAC clone F28K19 of Arabidopsis, encoded a polypeptide of 653 amino acids that is 72.6% identical to Sultr1;1 and was able to restore sulfate uptake capacity of a yeast mutant lacking sulfate transporter genes (K(m) for sulfate = 6.9 +/- 1.0 microm). Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the fusion gene construct of the Sultr1;2 promoter and green fluorescent protein (GFP) showed specific localization of GFP in the root hairs, epidermal and cortical cells of roots, and in the guard cells of leaves, suggesting that Sultr1;2 may co-localize with Sultr1;1 in the same cell layers at the root surface. Sultr1;1 mRNA was abundantly expressed under low-sulfur conditions (50-100 microm sulfate), whereas Sultr1;2 mRNA accumulated constitutively at high levels under a wide range of sulfur conditions (50-1500 microm sulfate), indicating that Sultr1;2 is less responsive to changes in sulfur conditions. Addition of selenate to the medium increased the level of Sultr1;1 mRNA in parallel with a decrease in the internal sulfate pool in roots. The level of Sultr1;2 mRNA was not influenced under these conditions. Antisense plants of Sultr1;1 showed reduced accumulation of sulfate in roots, particularly in plants treated with selenate, suggesting that the inducible transporter Sultr1;1 contributes to the uptake of sulfate under stressed conditions.  相似文献
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植物硫营养代谢、调控与生物学功能   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
植物作为无机硫的主要还原者,在全球的硫循环中起着关键作用。植物对土壤中硫酸盐的吸收运输和同化代谢,以及一系列具有重要生物学功能的含硫代谢产物的合成,不但与植物生长发育、耐逆和抗病虫害等密切相关,而且影响农作物产量与品质。硫营养的代谢和调控非常复杂,且生物学功能众多。本文综述了近年来植物硫营养代谢及调控及其在逆境胁迫中的生物学功能等方面的新进展,同时讨论了该领域悬而未决的重要生物学问题和研究动向,进而提出硫营养在农业生产上的重要性和所面临的新问题。  相似文献
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The role of molybdenum in agricultural plant production   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
BACKGROUND: The importance of molybdenum for plant growth is disproportionate with respect to the absolute amounts required by most plants. Apart from Cu, Mo is the least abundant essential micronutrient found in most plant tissues and is often set as the base from which all other nutrients are compared and measured. Molybdenum is utilized by selected enzymes to carry out redox reactions. Enzymes that require molybdenum for activity include nitrate reductase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and sulfite oxidase. SCOPE: Loss of Mo-dependent enzyme activity (directly or indirectly through low internal molybdenum levels) impacts upon plant development, in particular, those processes involving nitrogen metabolism and the synthesis of the phytohormones abscisic acid and indole-3 butyric acid. Currently, there is little information on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution and redistribute it within the plant. In this review, the role of molybdenum in plants is discussed, focusing on its current constraints in some agricultural situations and where increased molybdenum nutrition may aid in agricultural plant development and yields. CONCLUSIONS: Molybdenum deficiencies are considered rare in most agricultural cropping areas; however, the phenotype is often misdiagnosed and attributed to other downstream effects associated with its role in various enzymatic redox reactions. Molybdenum fertilization through foliar sprays can effectively supplement internal molybdenum deficiencies and rescue the activity of molybdoenzymes. The current understanding on how plants access molybdate from the soil solution or later redistribute it once in the plant is still unclear; however, plants have similar physiological molybdenum transport phenotypes to those found in prokaryotic systems. Thus, careful analysis of existing prokaryotic molybdate transport mechanisms, as well as a re-examination of know anion transport mechanisms present in plants, will help to resolve how this important trace element is accumulated.  相似文献
4.
A high-affinity-type sulfate transporter (Group 1: ZmST1;1, Accession No. AF355602) has been cloned from maize seedlings by RT-PCR. Tissue and cell specific localisation of this sulfate transporter has been determined along the developmental gradient of the root and in leaves of different ages. In S-sufficient conditions there was uniform low expression of ZmST1;1 in the root and very low expression in the leaves. Increased mRNA abundance and sulfate influx capacity indicated that S-starvation increased ZmST1;1 expression in roots, especially at the top of the root (just behind the seed, the area possessing most laterals and root hairs) compared to the root tip. Similarly a group 2, probable low affinity-type sulfate transporter, ZmST2;1, and also ATP-sulfurylase and APS-reductase but not OAS(thiol)lyase were induced by S-starvation and showed highest expression in the upper section of the root. S-starvation increased root/shoot ratio by 20 % and increased root lateral length and abundance in the region closest to the root tip. As the increase in root proliferation was not as great as the increase in mRNA pools, it was clear that there was a higher cellular abundance of the mRNAs for sulfate transporters, ATP-sulfurylase, and APS-reductase in response to sulfur starvation. In the leaves, the sulfate transporters, ATP-sulfurylase and APS-reductase were induced by S-starvation with the most mature leaf showing increased mRNA abundance first. In situ hybridization indicated that ZmST1;1 was expressed in epidermal and endodermal cell layers throughout the root whilst OAS(thiol)lyase was highly expressed in the root cortex.  相似文献
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玉米ST和ATPS部分cDNA序列克隆及分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
朱超  王保莉  曲东 《西北植物学报》2007,27(9):1742-1746
硫酸盐转运蛋白(ST)和ATP硫酸化酶(ATPS)是根系吸收硫酸盐和植物体内硫酸盐同化过程的关键蛋白和酶,在硫酸盐的生物转运过程中具有重要作用.以水培玉米农大108根系为材料,并根据已报道的玉米的硫酸盐转运蛋白和ATP硫酸化酶基因保守序列分别设计PCR引物对,采用RT-PCR方法克隆到783 bp和820 bp的部分硫酸盐转运蛋白和ATP硫酸化酶cDNA片段,分别命名为ST_ND108和ATPS_ND108.序列分析和比对结果显示,ST_ND108与已报道的玉米和水稻的高亲和型硫酸盐转运蛋白基因同源性分别为99%和85%;而ATPS_ND108与已报道的玉米ATP硫酸化酶基因同源性达到97%,进化树聚类分析和预测氨基酸的BLAST结果证实ST_ND108为高亲和性硫酸盐转运蛋白基因片段,ATPS_ND108为质体ATP硫酸化酶基因片段.  相似文献
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Two genes were isolated from a rice genomic library and the coding region of their corresponding cDNAs generated by RT-PCR. These single copy genes, designated ORYsa;Sultr1;1 and ORYsa;Sultr4;1, encode putative sulfate transporters. Both genes encode proteins with predicted topologies and signature sequences of the H+/SO42- symporter family of transporters and exhibit a high degree of homology to other plant sulfate transporters. ORYsa;Sultr1;1 is expressed in roots with levels of expression being strongly enhanced by sulfate starvation. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that ORYsa;Sultr1;1 expression is localized to the main absorptive region of roots. This gene probably encodes a transporter that is responsible for uptake of sulfate from the soil solution. In contrast, ORYsa;Sultr4;1 was expressed in both roots and shoots and was unresponsive to the sulfur status of the plant. The sequence of ORYsa;Sultr4;1 contains a possible plastid-targeting transit peptide which may indicate a role in transport of sulfate to sites of sulfate reduction in plastids. The role of the transporter encoded by ORYsa;Sultr4;1 is likely to be significantly different fromORYsa;Sultr1;1. These are the first reports of isolation of genes encoding sulfate transporters from rice and provide a basis for further studies involving sulfate transport.  相似文献
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