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1.
生态化学计量学:复杂生命系统奥秘的探索   总被引:52,自引:3,他引:49       下载免费PDF全文
 20世纪以来,生物科学的发展异军突起,成为发展最快的学科,不仅学科分类逐渐细化,而且研究领域也逐渐深入,然而,这种分化和深入也可能会掩盖生物的一些最普遍特征。地球上的生物是否具有统一的、更本质的特征?能否把不同生物学领域和不同层次的知识联系起来?随着对这些问题的不断探索,一门新兴的学科——生态化学计量学,在最近20年悄然兴起。生态化学计量学结合了生物学、化学和物理学等基本原理,是研究生物系统能量平衡和多重化学元素(主要是C、N、P)平衡的科学。这一研究领域使得生物学科不同层次(分子、细胞、有机体、种群、生态系统和全球尺度)的研究理论能够有机地统一起来。目前,生态化学计量学已经广泛应用于种群动态、生物体营养动态、微生物营养、寄主_病原关系、生物共生关系、消费者驱动的养分循环、限制性元素的判断、生态系统比较分析和森林演替与衰退及全球C、N、P生物地球化学循环等研究中,并取得了许多研究成果。该文概述了生态化学计量的概念、历史起源和基本理论,重点介绍了生态化学计量学理论在消费者驱动的养分循环、限制性养分元素判别以及全球C、N、P循环等方面的应用进展,并对生态化学计量学未来的研究方向进行了展望,期望引起国内同行的重视并有助于推动我国在此领域开展相关研究。  相似文献
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Dynamic acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to environmental cues, particularly light quantity and quality, is a widely-observed and important phenomenon which contributes to the tolerance of plants against stress and helps to maintain, as far as possible, optimal photosynthetic efficiency and resource utilization. This mini-review represents a scrutiny of a number of possible photoreceptors (including the two photosystems acting as light sensors) and signal transducers that may be involved in producing acclimation responses. We suggest that regulation by signal transduction may be effected at each of several possible points, and that there are multiple regulatory mechanisms for photosynthetic acclimation.Abbreviations FR far-red light - LHC I, LHC II light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of PS I and PS II, respectively - P700 primary electron donor of PS I - Pmax maximum photosynthetic capacity - QA primary quinone electron acceptor of PS II - qN, qP non-photochemical and photochemical quenching, respectively - R red light  相似文献
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To understand the importance of plants in structuring the vertical distributions of soil nutrients, we explored nutrient distributions in the top meter of soil for more than 10,000 profiles across a range of ecological conditions. Hypothesizing that vertical nutrient distributions are dominated by plant cycling relative to leaching, weathering dissolution, and atmospheric deposition, we examined three predictions: (1) that the nutrients that are most limiting for plants would have the shallowest average distributions across ecosystems, (2) that the vertical distribution of a limiting nutrient would be shallower as the nutrient became more scarce, and (3) that along a gradient of soil types with increasing weathering-leaching intensity, limiting nutrients would be relatively more abundant due to preferential cycling by plants. Globally, the ranking of vertical distributions among nutrients was shallowest to deepest in the following order: P > K > Ca > Mg > Na = Cl = SO4. Nutrients strongly cycled by plants, such as P and K, were more concentrated in the topsoil (upper 20 cm) than were nutrients usually less limiting for plants such as Na and Cl. The topsoil concentrations of all nutrients except Na were higher in the soil profiles where the elements were more scarce. Along a gradient of weathering-leaching intensity (Aridisols to Mollisols to Ultisols), total base saturation decreased but the relative contribution of exchangeable K+ to base saturation increased. These patterns are difficult to explain without considering the upward transport of nutrients by plant uptake and cycling. Shallower distributions for P and K, together with negative associations between abundance and topsoil accumulation, support the idea that plant cycling exerts a dominant control on the vertical distribution of the most limiting elements for plants (those required in high amounts in relation to soil supply). Plant characteristics like tissue stoichiometry, biomass cycling rates, above- and belowground allocation, root distributions, and maximum rooting depth may all play an important role in shaping nutrient profiles. Such vertical patterns yield insight into the patterns and processes of nutrient cycling through time.  相似文献
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 选择南亚热带森林演替过程3个阶段(初期、中期和后期)的典型森林生态系统为研究对象, 在测定植物与土壤中全N、全P含量的基础上, 阐明了森林演替过程中植物与土壤的N、P化学计量特征。结果显示: 1)土壤中全N含量随演替进行而增加, 马尾松(Pinus massoniana)林(初期)、混交林(中期)和季风林(后期) 0–10 cm土层中全N含量分别为0.440、0.843和1.023 g·kg–1; 混交林0–10 cm土层中全P的含量最为丰富, 为0.337 g·kg–1, 马尾松林和季风林土壤全P含量分别为0.190和0.283 g·kg–1。2)植物叶片中全N、全P的含量随演替呈减少的趋势, 但根系中全N、全P的含量都以马尾松林为最多, 混交林和季风林含量彼此相当。3)各土层中N:P随演替的进行呈现明显增加趋势, 马尾松林、混交林和季风林0–10 cm土层中N:P分别为2.3、2.5和3.6; 植物各器官中N:P随演替的进行也呈增加趋势, 且叶片和根系中的N:P相近, 马尾松林、混交林和季风林叶片中N:P分别为22.7、25.3和29.6。基于上述结果, 探讨了南亚热带森林生态系统植物与土壤中N:P特征、森林演替过程中植物与土壤中N:P变化规律以及P对南亚热带森林生态系统的限制作用。结果表明, P已经成为南亚热带森林生态系统生物生长和重要生态过程的限制因子。  相似文献
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Global patterns of dissolved N, P and Si in large rivers   总被引:18,自引:4,他引:14  
The concentration of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved nitrate-N, Total-N (TN), dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP), total phosphorus (TP), dissolved silicate-Si (DSi) and their ratios in the world's largest rivers are examined using a global data base that includes 37% of the earth's watershed area and half its population. These data were compared to water quality in 42 subbasins of the relatively well-monitored Mississippi River basin (MRB) and of 82 small watersheds of the United States. The average total nitrogen concentration varies over three orders of magnitude among both world river watersheds and the MRB, and is primarily dependent on variations in dissolved nitrate concentration, rather than particulate or dissolved organic matter or ammonium. There is also a direct relationship between the DIN:DIP ratio and nitrate concentration. When nitrate-N exceeds 100 g-at l–1, the DIN:DIP ratio is generally above the Redfield ratio (16:1), which implies phosphorus limitation of phytoplankton growth. Compared to nitrate, the among river variation in the DSi concentration is relatively small so that the DSi loading (mass/area/time) is largely controlled by runoff volume. The well-documented influence of human activities on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loading thus exceeds the influences arising from the great variability in soil types, climate and geography among these watersheds. The DSi:nitrate-N ratio is controlled primarily by nitrogen loading and is shown to be inversely correlated with an index of landscape development – the City Lights nighttime imagery. Increased nitrogen loading is thus driving the world's largest rivers towards a higher DIN:DIP ratio and a lower DSi:DIN ratio. About 7.3 and 21 % of the world's population lives in watersheds with a DSi:nitrate-N ratio near a 1:1 and 2:1 ratio, respectively. The empirical evidence is that this percentage will increase with further economic development. When the DSi:nitrate-N atomic ratio is near 1:1, aquatic food webs leading from diatoms (which require silicate) to fish may be compromised and the frequency or size of harmful or noxious algal blooms may increase. Used together, the DSi:nitrate-N ratio and nitrate-N concentration are useful and robust comparative indicators of eutrophication in large rivers. Finally, we estimate the riverine loading to the ocean for nitrate-N, TN, DIP, TP and DSi to be 16.2, 21, 2.6, 3.7 to 5.6, and 194 Tg yr–1, respectively.  相似文献
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 对内蒙古典型草原不同恢复演替阶段群落土壤养分动态及空间格局、植物养分及其化学计量比时空动态、植物与土壤养分相关性等进行了分析, 以揭示放牧干扰对植物的养分及其化学计量比影响。结果表明: 土壤各养分含量表现为恢复群落略高于严重退化群落, 土壤全氮(STN)/土壤全磷(STP)恢复群落高于严重退化群落, 土壤有机质(SOC)/STN恢复群落低于严重退化群落; 大多数植物叶片C含量在恢复群落最高, 严重退化群落最低, 与恢复演替时间呈正相关, 而植物的全氮(TN)和全磷(TP)含量则是严重退化群落最高, 恢复群落最低, 与退化程度呈正相关, 且TP含量的变幅明显高于TN含量; 植物叶的N:P和C:N表现为严重退化群落最低, 与退化程度呈负相关; 严重退化群落植物相对于P而言, 总体上表现为缺N; 而恢复群落相对于N而言, 更为缺P, 或同时缺N和P; 群落优势种化学计量学特征对群落演替方向有一定的指示作用。  相似文献
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 动态平衡理论是生态化学计量学的理论基础, 各种有机体是否存在一个固定的化学计量比是生态学研究的热点问题。该文研究了杭州湾滨海湿地3种优势物种海三棱藨草(Scirpus mariqueter)、糙叶薹草(Carex scabrifolia)和芦苇(Phragmites australis)叶片N、P生态化学计量特征的季节变化。结果发现, 3种植物叶片N含量范围分别是7.41–17.12、7.47–13.15和6.03–18.09 mg·g–1, 平均值(±标准差)分别为(11.69 ± 2.66)、(10.17 ± 1.53)和(11.56 ± 3.19) mg·g–1; 叶片P范围分别是0.34–2.60、0.41–1.10和0.35–2.04 mg·g–1, 平均值为(0.93 ± 0.62)、(0.74 ± 0.23)和(0.82 ± 0.53) mg·g–1; N:P范围分别是7.19–30.63、11.58–16.81和8.62–21.86, 平均值为16.83 ± 8.31、14.53 ± 3.91和16.49 ± 5.51, 可见不同植物其生态化学计量值范围存在一定差异, 但经方差分析发现3种草本植物间生长季节内N、P元素含量差异并不显著(p > 0.05)。各物种叶片N、P含量均表现出在生长初期显著大于其他生长季节(p < 0.05), 生长旺季(6、7月)随着叶片生物量的持续增加, N、P含量逐渐降低并达到最小值, 随后8–9月叶片不再生长而N、P含量逐渐回升, 在10月叶片衰老时N、P含量再次下降; 叶片N:P则在生长初期较小, 在生长旺季先升高后降低, 随后叶片成熟不再生长时又逐渐增加并趋于稳定。  相似文献
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 以浙江天童常绿阔叶林、常绿针叶林和落叶阔叶林为对象, 通过对叶片和凋落物C:N:P比率与N、P重吸收的研究, 揭示3种植被类型N、P养分限制和N、P重吸收的内在联系。结果显示: 1)叶片C:N:P在常绿阔叶林为758:18:1, 在常绿针叶林为678:14:1, 在落叶阔叶林为338:11:1; 凋落物C:N:P在常绿阔叶林为777:13:1, 常绿针叶林为691:14:1, 落叶阔叶林为567:14:1; 2)常绿阔叶林和常绿针叶林叶片与凋落物C:N均显著高于落叶阔叶林; 叶片C:P在常绿阔叶林最高, 常绿针叶林中等, 落叶阔叶林最低, 常绿阔叶林和常绿针叶林凋落物C:P显著高于落叶阔叶林; 叶片N:P比也是常绿阔叶林最高、常绿针叶林次之, 落叶阔叶林最低, 但常绿阔叶林凋落物N:P最低; 3)植被叶片N、P含量间(N为x, P为y)的II类线性回归斜率显著大于1 (p < 0.05), 表明叶片P含量的增加可显著提高叶片N含量; 凋落物N、P含量的回归斜率约等于1, 反映了凋落物中单位P含量与单位N含量间的等速损耗关系; 4)常绿阔叶林N重吸收率显著高于常绿针叶林与落叶阔叶林, 落叶阔叶林P重吸收率显著高于常绿阔叶林和常绿针叶林。虽然植被的N:P指示常绿阔叶林受P限制, 落叶阔叶林受N限制, 常绿针叶林受N、P的共同限制, 但是N、P重吸收研究结果表明: 受N素限制的常绿阔叶林具有高的N重吸收率, 受P限制的落叶阔叶林并不具有高的P重吸收率。可见, 较高的N、P养分转移率可能不是植物对N、P养分胁迫的一种重要适应机制, 是物种固有的特征。  相似文献
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Regulation of respiration and ATP synthesis in higher organisms: Hypothesis   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
The present view on the regulation of respiration and ATP synthesis in higher organisms implies only Michaelis-Menten type kinetics and respiratory control as regulatory principles. Recent experimental observations, suggesting further regulatory mechanisms at respiratory chain complexes, are reviewed. A new hypothesis is presented implying regulation of respiration and ATP synthesis in higher organisms mainly via allosteric modification of respiratory chain complexes, in particular of cytochromec oxidase. The allosteric effectors, e.g., metabolites, cofactors, ions, hormones, and the membrane potential are suggested to change the activity and the coupling degree of cytochromec oxidase by binding to specific sites at nuclear coded subunits. Recent results on the structure and activity of cytochromec oxidase, supporting the hypothesis, are reviewed.Dedicated to Professor Dr. Carl Martius on the occasion of his 80th birthday.  相似文献
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