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1.
生态化学计量学:复杂生命系统奥秘的探索   总被引:52,自引:3,他引:49       下载免费PDF全文
 20世纪以来,生物科学的发展异军突起,成为发展最快的学科,不仅学科分类逐渐细化,而且研究领域也逐渐深入,然而,这种分化和深入也可能会掩盖生物的一些最普遍特征。地球上的生物是否具有统一的、更本质的特征?能否把不同生物学领域和不同层次的知识联系起来?随着对这些问题的不断探索,一门新兴的学科——生态化学计量学,在最近20年悄然兴起。生态化学计量学结合了生物学、化学和物理学等基本原理,是研究生物系统能量平衡和多重化学元素(主要是C、N、P)平衡的科学。这一研究领域使得生物学科不同层次(分子、细胞、有机体、种群、生态系统和全球尺度)的研究理论能够有机地统一起来。目前,生态化学计量学已经广泛应用于种群动态、生物体营养动态、微生物营养、寄主_病原关系、生物共生关系、消费者驱动的养分循环、限制性元素的判断、生态系统比较分析和森林演替与衰退及全球C、N、P生物地球化学循环等研究中,并取得了许多研究成果。该文概述了生态化学计量的概念、历史起源和基本理论,重点介绍了生态化学计量学理论在消费者驱动的养分循环、限制性养分元素判别以及全球C、N、P循环等方面的应用进展,并对生态化学计量学未来的研究方向进行了展望,期望引起国内同行的重视并有助于推动我国在此领域开展相关研究。  相似文献
2.
以Klebsiella pneumoniae利用葡萄糖和木糖双底物生物转化生产2,3-丁二醇和氢气过程为研究对象,对其进行代谢计量分析。分析结果显示:2,3-丁二醇和氢气相对于底物葡萄糖和木糖的质量收率依赖于还原能力NADH2氧化磷酸化的分率(δ)。当δ=27时,即在总还原能力NADH2中有27mol NADH2被氧化磷酸化,剩余部分用来产生氢气,呼吸商为14时,2,3-丁二醇和氢气的最优质量收率分别为50%和0.8%;而当δ=1,即还原能力NADH2全部被氧化磷酸化、不产生氢气,呼吸商为4时,2,3-丁二醇的质量收率为37.5%;2,3-丁二醇和氢气的质量收率与底物中葡萄糖和木糖的比值无关。而氢气的摩尔收率与底物中葡萄糖和木糖的比值相关,当底物全部是葡萄糖或木糖时,其最优摩尔收率分别为71%和60%。该分析结果为葡萄糖和木糖双底物生物转化生产2,3-丁二醇过程的实验研究奠定了理论基础。  相似文献
3.
南昌市不同植物类群叶片氮磷浓度及其化学计量比   总被引:8,自引:2,他引:6  
对南昌大学前湖校区89种主要植物叶片的N、P浓度及其化学计量比进行了研究,结果表明:乔灌、常绿、针叶、种子、裸子和单子叶植物类群的N浓度分别低于相对应的草本、落叶、阔叶、蕨类、被子和双子叶植物类群,而C3和C4植物差异不显著;乔灌、常绿和裸子植物类群的P浓度含量分别低于相对应的草本、落叶和被子植物类群,而针叶和阔叶、蕨类和种子、单子叶和双子叶、C3和C4植物类群间差异不显著;乔木、阔叶、被子和双子叶植物类群叶片N/P分别高于相对应的灌草、针叶、裸子和单子叶植物类群,而常绿和落叶、蕨类和种子、C3和C4植物类群之间差异不显著.可见,不同类型植物对N和P的吸收利用存在差异,且对不同养分供应采取不同的适应对策.结合研究区土壤养分现状,建议优先选择常绿、针叶、裸子和单子叶植物类群作为城市园林植物.  相似文献
4.
Comparison of four nuclear isolation buffers for plant DNA flow cytometry   总被引:7,自引:1,他引:6  
Background and Aims DNA flow cytometry requires preparationof suspensions of intact nuclei, which are stained using a DNA-specificfluorochrome prior to analysis. Various buffer formulas weredeveloped to preserve nuclear integrity, protect DNA from degradationand facilitate its stoichiometric staining. Although nuclearisolation buffers differ considerably in chemical composition,no systematic comparison of their performance has been madeuntil now. This knowledge is required to select the appropriatebuffer for a given species and tissue. • Methods Four common lysis buffers (Galbraith's, LB01,Otto's and Tris.MgCl2) were used to prepare samples from leaftissues of seven plant species (Sedum burrito, Oxalis pes-caprae,Lycopersicon esculentum, Celtis australis, Pisum sativum, Festucarothmaleri and Vicia faba). The species were selected to covera wide range of genome sizes (1·30–26·90pg per 2C DNA) and a variety of leaf tissue types. The followingparameters were assessed: forward (FS) and side (SS) light scatters,fluorescence of propidium iodide-stained nuclei, coefficientof variation of DNA peaks, presence of debris background andthe number of nuclei released from sample tissue. The experimentswere performed independently by two operators and repeated onthree different days. • Key Results Clear differences among buffers were observed.With the exception of O. pes-caprae, any buffer provided acceptableresults for all species. LB01 and Otto's were generally thebest buffers, with Otto's buffer providing better results inspecies with low DNA content. Galbraith's buffer led to satisfactoryresults and Tris.MgCl2 was generally the worst, although ityielded the best histograms in C. australis. A combined analysisof FS and SS provided a ‘fingerprint’ for each buffer.The variation between days was more significant than the variationbetween operators. • Conclusions Each lysis buffer tested responded to a specificproblem differently and none of the buffers worked best withall species. These results expand our knowledge on nuclear isolationbuffers and will facilitate selection of the most appropriatebuffer depending on species, tissue type and the presence ofcytosolic compounds interfering with DNA staining.  相似文献
5.
Stoichiometric food quality and herbivore dynamics   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
Herbivores may grow with nutrient or energy limitation, depending on food abundance and the chemical composition of their food. We present a model that describes herbivore growth as a continuous function of two limiting factors. This function uses the synthesizing unit concept, has the hyperbolic Monod model as a limiting case, and has the same number of parameters as the Monod model coupled to Liebig's discontinuous minimum rule. We use the model to explore nutrient-limited herbivore growth in a closed system with algae, Daphnia and phosphorus as the limiting nutrient. Phosphorus in algae may substantially influence Daphnia growth. This influence changes over time and is most pronounced when algae and Daphnia populations fluctuate strongly. Relative to classic models that only consider food quantity as a determinant of Daphnia growth, our model shows richer dynamical behaviour. In addition to the standard positive equilibrium, which may be stable or unstable depending on nutrient availability, a new positive equilibrium may arise in our model when mortality rates are relatively high. This equilibrium is unstable and reduces the likelihood of long-term persistence of Daphnia in the system.  相似文献
6.
Multivariate analysis of noise in genetic regulatory networks   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Stochasticity is an intrinsic property of genetic regulatory networks due to the low copy numbers of the major molecular species, such as, DNA, mRNA, and regulatory proteins. Therefore, investigation of the mechanisms that reduce the stochastic noise is essential in understanding the reproducible behaviors of real organisms and is also a key to design synthetic genetic regulatory networks that can reliably work. We use an analytical and systematic method, the linear noise approximation of the chemical master equation along with the decoupling of a stoichiometric matrix. In the analysis of fluctuations of multiple molecular species, the covariance is an important measure of noise. However, usually the representation of a covariance matrix in the natural coordinate system, i.e. the copy numbers of the molecular species, is intractably complicated because reactions change copy numbers of more than one molecular species simultaneously. Decoupling of a stoichiometric matrix, which is a transformation of variables, significantly simplifies the representation of a covariance matrix and elucidates the mechanisms behind the observed fluctuations in the copy numbers. We apply our method to three types of fundamental genetic regulatory networks, that is, a single-gene autoregulatory network, a two-gene autoregulatory network, and a mutually repressive network. We have found that there are multiple noise components differently originating. Each noise component produces fluctuation in the characteristic direction. The resulting fluctuations in the copy numbers of the molecular species are the sum of these fluctuations. In the examples, the limitation of the negative feedback in noise reduction and the trade-off of fluctuations in multiple molecular species are clearly explained. The analytical representations show the full parameter dependence. Additionally, the validity of our method is tested by stochastic simulations.  相似文献
7.
以城市地被植物麦冬(Ophiopogon japonicus(Thunb.)Ker-Gawl.)为研究对象,研究了土壤中添加氮(N)磷(P)后对植物根部N、P养分及其化学计量比的影响。结果表明,实验监测期间(10-12月),麦冬根部N浓度平均值表现为N(5gm-2) P(1gm-2)处理>N(5gm-2)处理=P(1gm-2)处理>对照,根部P浓度和N:P比差异不显著(P>0.1)。而监测期间的N、P月份动态结果表明,同对照相比,N处理、P处理和N P处理的麦冬根部N、P浓度和N:P比的差异性均表现为监测前期(10月)较大,中后期(11-12月)较小的变化趋势。这说明麦冬能保持其根部N、P水平的稳定性,具有较强的应对N沉降的能力,且补充P肥可增强这种能力。因此,麦冬可在大气沉降严重的地区应用和推广。  相似文献
8.
尤溪天然米槠林植物碳氮磷的化学计量特征及其分配格局   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
以福建尤溪的天然米槠[Castanopsis carlesii(Hemsl.) Hayata]林乔木层、灌木层和草本层的26个主要优势种为研究对象,分析了植物不同器官的C、N和P含量及其比值的差异及相关性,并对不同器官C、N和P含量在不同层次间的分布特征进行了研究.结果显示:同一器官中均为C平均含量最高、P平均含量最低;其中,叶片中C、N和P含量分别为344.95 ~ 486.15、6.26 ~ 19.50和0.18 ~0.62 mg·g-1,C/N、C/P和N/P比分别为22.52 ~61.21、696.64~2 589.72和11.38 ~58.94;根系中的C、N和P含量分别为277.95 ~458.30、1.41 ~12.73和0.13 ~0.44mg·g-1,C/N、C/P和N/P比分别为34.63 ~296.17、731.45 ~3 372.69和8.81 ~34.41;乔木层和灌木层植物枝条中C、N和P含量分别为407.75 ~473.75、3.10 ~7.39和0.09~0.61 mg·g-1,C/N、C/P和N/P比分别为57.43 ~148.15、776.64~5 054.44和7.05 ~48.11;乔木层植物树干中的C、N和P含量分别为432.56 ~463.32、2.67 ~6.35和0.16 ~0.31 mg·g-1,C/N、C/P和N/P比分别为68.12 ~167.73、1 494.58 ~2 860.63和11.35 ~29.06.乔木层植物的不同器官按C含量由高至低依次排序为叶片、枝条、树干、根系,按N和P含量由高至低依次排序为叶片、枝条、根系、树干;灌木层植物的C含量在枝条中最高、根系中最低,N和P含量在叶片中最高、枝条中最低;而草本层植物地上部分的C、N和P含量均高于地下部分.除根系中的N含量与P含量呈极显著正相关外,同一器官的C、N和P含量间均无显著相关性,但与C/N、C/P和N/P比值间大多有极显著的相关性.不同器官的C、N和P含量也因植物所处层次的不同而异,其中乔木层植物叶片中均最高、草本层植物叶片中均最低;乔木层植物全株的C含量最高、N含量最低,草本层植物全株的N含量最高、C含量最低,各层植物全株的P含量比较接近.研究结果表明:尤溪天然米槠林内植物叶片的C、N和P含量均偏低,P缺乏很可能是限制该林分植物生产力的最重要元素.  相似文献
9.
HClO4-SiO2 catalyzed per-O-acetylation of carbohydrates   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
An efficient per-O-acetylation of carbohydrates catalyzed by HClO4-SiO2 is reported using a stoichiometric quantity of acetic anhydride avoiding the use of pyridine and excess acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions.  相似文献
10.
凋落物分解是森林生态系统生物元素循环和能量流动的重要环节,其过程是植物与土壤获得养分的主要途径。为了量化凋落叶化学计量学性状变化过程对分解的影响及对凋落物-土壤生物化学连续体的深层理解,用凋落物分解袋法研究了不同林型各自凋落叶化学计量学性状变化及与分解速率关系,结果表明:林下各自凋落叶分解速率是马尾松林<栓皮栎林<马尾松-栓皮栎混交林,马尾松林、栓皮栎林、马尾松-栓皮栎混交林凋落叶分解50%和95%的时间分别是2.11 a和9.15 a,1.93 a和8.45 a,1.76 a和7.77 a;凋落叶分解过程中,化学计量学性状变化明显,分解450 d后马尾松-栓皮栎混交林碳释放最快,栓皮栎林最慢;3种凋落叶起始N含量是栓皮栎林最高,马尾松林最低,分解450 d后马尾松林、栓皮栎林和马尾松-栓皮栎混交林N含量分别增加了66.67%、44.91%和44.52%,而P含量分别释放了30.80%、38.89%和42.29%。凋落物不同化学计量学性状与分解速率关系不同,3种林型凋落叶分解速率均与N含量呈正相关(P<0.01),与C含量(P<0.01)、C/N比(P<0.01)呈负相关,与N/P比呈负二次函数关系(P<0.01),而P含量与3种林型关系不同,与栓皮栎林(P<0.01)和马尾松林(P<0.05)呈负线性关系,与马尾松-栓皮栎混交林呈负二次函数关系(P<0.05)。研究表明,不同林型凋落叶分解中的养分动态趋向利于分解变化,N、P养分动态是生态系统碳平衡和凋落物分解速率的主要因素,混交林中混合凋落物的养分迁移是分解相对较快的原因。  相似文献
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