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1.
Genetic differentiation can be highly variable across the genome. For example, loci under divergent selection and those tightly linked to them may exhibit elevated differentiation compared to neutral regions. These represent "outlier loci" whose differentiation exceeds neutral expectations. Adaptive divergence can also increase genome-wide differentiation by promoting general barriers to neutral gene flow, thereby facilitating genomic divergence via genetic drift. This latter process can yield a positive correlation between adaptive phenotypic divergence and neutral genetic differentiation (described here as "isolation-by-adaptation"). Here, we examine both these processes by combining an AFLP genome scan of two host plant ecotypes of Timema cristinae walking-sticks with existing data on adaptive phenotypic divergence and ecological speciation in these insects. We found that about 8% of loci are outliers in multiple population comparisons. Replicated comparisons between population-pairs using the same versus different host species revealed that 1-2% of loci are subject to host-related selection specifically. Locus-specific analyses revealed that up to 10% of putatively neutral (nonoutlier) AFLP loci exhibit significant isolation-by-adaptation. Our results suggest that selection may affect differentiation directly, via linkage, or by facilitating genetic drift. They thus illustrate the varied and sometimes nonintuitive contributions of selection to heterogeneous genomic differentiation.  相似文献
2.
Abstract  In this study we report the results from the first long-term (40 weeks) study of stick-insect fecundity and distribution under natural conditions of which we are aware. We used the number of eggs falling into 72 × 0.5 m2 traps to ask: 'Was egg production in Sipyloidea sp. uniform across the sample period'? and 'Was there evidence of host plant species preference or avoidance'? We collected a total of 213 Sipyloidea sp. eggs. The number of eggs caught per week was not uniform and an exponential decay model was the best-fit relationship between egg production and time, indicative of a steep decline from high to low (but continuous) egg production across the study period. Continuous egg production differs from other insect species in tropical areas that often show distinct seasonal differences between wet and dry seasons, timed to leaf production in host plants. The distribution of eggs within traps was aggregated, and more traps than expected from Poisson probabilities received no eggs, or six or more eggs. The concentration of eggs within particular traps was not related to the identity of canopy plant species, however. We suggest that continuous egg production in Sipyloidea sp. may be related to the wider range of plant species available as food resources for the polyphagous Sipyloidea , compared with other tropical insect species.  相似文献
3.
A rapid three-step DAPI technique is proposed for detecting meiotic stages and sperm head evolution in yolky, fertilized stick insect eggs, which were difficult to analyze with other methods. Fixed eggs were freed from chorionic envelopes and stained directly in DAPI/PBS solution. After rinsing, eggs were singly squashed in a drop of mounting buffer and examined under a microscope with incident fluorescent illumination. The method was almost uniformly successful, and direct observation of nuclear structures, coupled with fluorometry, allowed easy recognition of bivalents, diads, pronuclei and their DNA content. The DAPI method proposed here appears particularly helpful for investigating unusual reproductive modes in eggs with large amounts of yolk.  相似文献
4.
This paper concentrates on the system that controls the femur-tibia joint in the legs of the stick insect, Carausius morosus. Earlier investigations have shown that this joint is subject to a mixture of proportional and differential control whereby the differential part plays a prominent role. Experiments presented here suggest another interpretation: single legs of a stick insect were systematically perturbed using devices of different compliance and compensatory forces and movements monitored. When the compliance is high (soft spring), forces are generated that return the leg close to its original position. When the compliance is low (stiff spring), larger forces are generated but sustained changes in position occur that are proportional to the force that is applied. Selective ablation of leg sense organs showed that the leg did not maintain its position after elimination of afferents of the femoral chordotonal organ. Ablation of leg campaniform sensilla had no effect. These data support the idea that different control strategies are used, depending upon substrate compliance. In particular, what we and other authors have called a differential controller, is now considered as an integral controller that intelligently gives up when the correlation between motor output and movement of the leg is low.We would like to dedicate this article to Prof. Dr. Ulrich Bässler. Starting in the 1960s, his seminal work stimulated a long series of fruitful studies that, even today, reveal exciting insights into motor control.  相似文献
5.
Locomotion of stick insects climbing over gaps of more than twice their step length has proved to be a useful paradigm to investigate how locomotor behaviour is adapted to external conditions. In this study, swing amplitudes and extreme positions of single steps from gap-crossing sequences have been analysed and compared to corresponding parameters of undisturbed walking. We show that adaptations of the basic mechanisms concern movements of single legs as well as the coordination between the legs. Slowing down of stance velocity, searching movements of legs in protraction and the generation of short steps are crucial prerequisites in the gap-crossing task. The rules of leg coordination described for stick insect walking seem to be modified, and load on the supporting legs is assumed to have a major effect on coordination especially in slow walking. Stepping into the gap with a front leg and antennal contact with the far edge of the gap provide information, as both events influence the following leg movements, whereas antennal non-contact seems not to contain information. Integration of these results into the model of the walking controller can improve our understanding of insect locomotion in highly irregular environments.Abbreviations AEP anterior extreme position - fAEP fictive anterior extreme position - PEP posterior extreme position - TOT treading-on-tarsus  相似文献
6.
7.
The femoral chordotonal organ in orthopterans signals proprioceptive sensory information concerning the femur-tibia joint to the central nervous system. In the stick insect, 80 out of 500 afferents sense tibial position, velocity, or acceleration. It has been assumed that the other sensory cells in the chordotonal organ would serve as vibration detectors. Extracellular recordings from the femoral chordotonal organ nerve in fact revealed a sensitivity of the sense organ for vibrations with frequencies ranging from 10 Hz to 4 kHz, with a maximum sensitivity between 200 and 800 Hz. Single vibration-sensitive afferents responded to the same range of frequencies. Their spike activity depended on acceleration amplitude and displacement amplitude of the vibration stimulus. Additionally, 80% of the vibration-sensitive afferents received indirect presynaptic inputs from themselves or from other afferents of the femoral chordotonal organ, the amplitude of which depended on stimulus frequency and displacement amplitude. They were associated with a decrease of input resistance in the afferent terminal. From the present investigation we conclude that the femoral chordotonal organ of the stick insect is a bifunctional sensory organ that, on the one hand, measures position and movement of the tibia and, on the other hand, detects vibration of the tibia. Accepted: 6 November 1998  相似文献
8.
The femoral chordotonal organ of stick insects senses position and velocity of movements in the femur-tibia joint, as well as tibial vibration. While sensory information about large-scale tibial movements is processed by a well-known neuronal network and elicits resistance reflexes in extensor and flexor tibiae motoneurons, it is not yet known how sensory information about vibration of the tibia is processed. We investigated the transmission of vibration stimuli to tibial extensor motoneurons and their premotor interneurons. Vibration stimuli applied to the femoral chordotonal organ evoked responses in tibial extensor and flexor muscles. During ongoing vibration this response adapted rapidly. This adaptation had no effect on the motoneuronal response to large-scale tibial movements. Recording from premotor interneurons revealed that vibratory signals were processed in part by the same interneuronal pathways as (large-scale) velocity and position information. While only certain parts of the interneuronal reflex pathways showed little or no response during vibration stimuli, most neurons responded to both position or velocity stimuli and vibration at the femoral chordotonal organ. We conclude that sensory information about vibration of the tibia shares part of the interneuronal pathways that transmit sensory information about large-scale tibial movements to the motoneurons. Accepted: 25 April 1999  相似文献
9.
The resistance reflex in the femur-tibia joint of stick insects shows a great variability in its strength which allows the animal to adapt to different environmental requirements. This paper presents the modulations in the neural reflex pathways which occur during an increase of the gain of the resistance reflex after tactile stimulation. The gain increase was associated with a short-term, reversible increase of slow extensor tibiae depolarization. Because membrane properties like resting potential and input resistance of this motoneuron remained unchanged during the gain changes, the increase of depolarization appeared to result from an increase of stimulus-related inputs and thus was due to modulations of the premotor neuronal network containing afferents of the femoral chordotonal organ and interneurons. However, no changes of spike activity of sensory neurons and amount of their presynaptic inhibition was found during gain changes. In contrast, recordings from different types of identified premotor non-spiking interneurons demonstrated a correlation between the amplitude of stimulus-related inputs to particular non-spiking interneurons and gain changes, while other non-spiking interneurons appeared unaffected. Thus, an increase in gain of the resistance reflex must be due to a specific weighting of synapses between sense organ and particular non-spiking interneurons. Accepted: 3 July 1998  相似文献
10.
In the artificially closed femur-tibia control system of stick insects oscillations were induced in 3 different ways: Increasing the phase-shift by introducing an electronic delay, afference sign reversal and coupling the tibia to an inert mass. In all 3 cases the oscillations stopped after some time. The gain of the open-loop system was significantly smaller after the oscillations. Afference sign reversal by surgically crossing of the receptor apodeme of the femoral chordotonal organ for 25–85 days does not lead to altered characteristics of the control loop. When sinusoidal passive movements are forced upon the intact femur-tibia joint the forces resisting these movements do not decrease with time. In contrast to direct stimulation of the femoral chordotonal organ, these passive movements also influence the contralateral leg. The experiments show that the gain-control system of the femur-tibia control loop of stick insects consists of at least two components: A sensitization system (with inputs from many kinds of stimuli indicating some kind of disturbance) increases the gain of all reflex loops. A specific habituation-like system decreases the gain with repetitive stimulation only of one control system.Abbreviations fCO femoral chordotonal organ - SETi slow extensor tibiae motor neuron  相似文献
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