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跳虫在土壤生态系统中的作用   总被引:31,自引:2,他引:29       下载免费PDF全文
跳虫是土壤生态系统中分布极广的一类小型至微型节肢动物。它们在土壤物质循环、土壤的发育及其微团聚体的形成、土壤理化特性和土壤生物群落的维护等诸多方面都发挥了重要作用。土壤中跳虫的多样性以及群落结构、物种组成都反映了土壤的质量和污染状况。本文介绍了跳虫在土壤生态系统的作用、生态学应用价值以及研究的现状和展望。  相似文献
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Chauvat M  Zaitsev AS  Wolters V 《Oecologia》2003,137(2):269-276
Dynamic approaches to forest ecosystems are surprisingly rare. Here we report about successional changes in collembolan community structure and microbial performances during forest rotation. The study was carried out in a chronosequence of four spruce forest stands (5-, 25-, 45-, and 95 years old; Tharandter forest, Germany). CO2 release significantly increased after clear-cutting and the amount of C stored in the organic layer subsequently declined. The early phase of forest rotation was characterized by a very active decomposer microflora, stimulation of both fungi and bacteria as well as by a high abundance of surface-oriented Collembola. In addition, collembolan species turnover was accelerated. While the biomass of fungi further increased at intermediate stages of forest rotation, the metabolic activity of the microflora was low, the functional diversity of bacteria declined and the collembolan community became impoverished. Euedaphic species dominated during this stage of forest development. These changes can be explained by both reduction in microhabitat diversity and depletion of food sources associated with an accumulation of recalcitrant soil organic matter. Results of the General Regression Model procedure indicate a shift from specific associations between collembolan functional groups and microbiota at the early stage of forest rotation to a more diffuse pattern at intermediate stages. Though the hypothesis that Collembola are relatively responsive to changes in environmental conditions is confirmed, consistently high community similarity suggests a remarkable persistence of some components of microarthropod assemblages. Our study provides evidence for substantial ecosystem-level implications of changes in the soil food web during forest rotation. Moreover, correlations between bacterial parameters and Collembola point to the overarching impact of differences in the composition of the microbial community on microarthropods.  相似文献
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The springtail Deuterosminthurus bicinctus, similarly to other members of Bourletiellidae, use their antennae, legs or heads to monopolize, stimulate, and direct female partners to spermatophores. The mating behavior of this species was examined by analysis of video recordings made on the leaves of its host plant. The characteristic stages of the behavioral sequence leading to sperm transfer were (1) preliminary courtship, highly variable in time and intensity—a male (rarely a female) endeavors to recruit a partner for further courtship, (2) push-and-retreat ritual—a rigid and rhythmical head-to-head dance of both partners, composed of some 180 phases and interspersed by several (3) free turns of a male and ended by (4) spermatophore deposition in front of a female, followed by stimulation of a female by a male to walk over the spermatophore, (5) spermatophore pick-up by a female with her gonopore, or alternately, (6) total spermatophore consumption by a female, as happened in 29% of the observed pairs. The mating ended always with (7) competition by both partners for the consumption of spermatophore residuals, usually won by the female. Comparison of mating elements and morphological features of partners engaged in mating sessions that ended either with spermatophore pick-up or consumption did not reveal any substantial differences. This suggests that changes in female motivation (hunger, state of impregnation) may be crucial for the male success in sperm transfer to a female. A digital video image is available at An erratum to this article can be found at  相似文献
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Scheu S  Simmerling F 《Oecologia》2004,139(3):347-353
Fungal feeding soil invertebrates feed on a wide spectrum of fungal species suggesting that mixed diets increase fitness. We investigated relationships between food preferences for seven saprophytic fungal species/forms and fitness parameters (mortality, growth, time to reproduction, reproduction, egg size) in two Collembola species, Folsomia candida and Protaphorura armata. The fungal species/forms studied included the wild type and a melanin-deficient form of Aspergillus fumigatus to investigate the role of melanin in collembolan nutrition. Also, three mixed diets consisting of a preferred fungal species (Cladosporium cladosporioides) and species of intermediate or low food quality were investigated. Both Collembola species preferred similar fungal species/forms as food. Food preference generally matched fitness parameters, i.e. growth and reproduction of Collembola was at a maximum when feeding on preferred fungi. This was not the case for A. fumigatus. The wild type and the melanin-deficient form ranked among the least preferred fungi. Growth and reproduction of Collembola were low when feeding on the wild type but high when feeding on the melanin-deficient form indicating that the Collembola misjudged the food quality of the latter in the preference tests. The results show for the first time that genes driving melanin syntheses (pksP) strongly affect the food quality of fungi for fungal feeding invertebrates. Feeding on mixed diets generally increased growth and reproduction of Collembola except when the diets included toxic species (Penicillium sp.). The results support the nutrient balance hypothesis and also show that the detection of toxic species in the diet is important. They indicate that the widespread generalist feeding mode of Collembola maximizes fitness if toxic fungal species are avoided. The fitness parameters growth, reproduction and time until onset of reproduction were correlated closely but egg volume, which also varied with fungal diet, correlated poorly with the other fitness parameters. Variation in egg size with fungal diet shows that the diet of Collembola may have transgenerational effects.  相似文献
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Effects of Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Onychiurus scotarius) and earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa and Octolasion tyrtaeum) on the growth of two plant species from different functional groups (Poa annua and Trifolium repens), and on the development of aphids (Myzus persicae) were investigated in a laboratory experiment lasting 20 weeks. Using soil from a fallow site which had been set aside for about 15 years, we expected that nitrogen would be of limited supply to plants and hypothesized that the soil animals studied, particularly earthworms, would increase nutrient availability to plants and thereby also modify aphid reproduction and development. Plant growth was modified strongly by the presence of soil animals. Earthworms caused a more than twofold increase in shoot and root mass of P. annua but increased that of T. repens by only 18% and 6%, respectively. However, earthworms neither affected plant shoot/root ratio nor the nitrogen concentration in plant tissue. In contrast, the presence of Collembola caused a reduction in plant biomass particularly that of P. annua roots, but plant tissue nitrogen concentration was increased, although only slightly. Aphid reproduction on T. repens was lowered in the presence of Collembola on average by 45% but on P. annua increased by a factor of about 3. It is concluded that Collembola decrease aphid reproduction on more palatable host plants like T. repens but increase that on less palatable ones like P. annua. Earthworm presence also affected aphid reproduction but the effect was less consistent than that of Collembola. In the presence of earthworms, aphid reproduction was in one experimental period increased by some 70%. Earthworms also modified the numbers of Collembola and their vertical distribution in experimental chambers. Exploitation of deeper soil layers by H. nitidus was increased but, generally, O. scotarius numbers were reduced whereas those of H. nitidus increased in earthworm treatments. The presence of Collembola also influenced earthworm body mass during the experiment. In general it declined, but in the presence of Collembola loss of body mass of A. caliginosa was more pronounced. We conclude that inhibiting effects between Collembola and earthworms resulted from the use of a common resource, litter material rich in nitrogen. This is supported by the higher C/N ratio of the litter material in the presence of earthworms and Collembola by the end of the experiment. Effects of soil invertebrates like Collembola and earthworms on plant performance and aphid development are assumed to be modified by complex direct and indirect interactions among soil animal groups. Received: 6 July 1998 / Accepted: 1 March 1999  相似文献
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