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1.
植物叶寿命及其相关叶性状的生态学研究进展   总被引:70,自引:10,他引:60       下载免费PDF全文
 科学家早已注意到,具有长叶寿命的植物通常生长于营养和(或)水分较为缺乏的环境,而具短叶寿命的植物一般生长在具有较高的营养可利用性地带。国外大量的实验研究结果表明,单位重量的叶氮含量(Nmass)与叶的最大光合速率存在密切正相关,而比叶面积(单位干重量的叶面积)与植物生产单位叶面积的物质成本呈负相关,二者又随叶寿命的增加而降低,这种相互关系几乎在所有植物种群和群落中都普遍存在,反映了植物对环境适应的趋同进化特征,是进一步理解生态系统行为特征的基础。松属(Pinus)及云杉(Picea)、冷杉(Abies)等常绿针叶树种的叶寿命一般随海拔的升高而增大,其相关叶性状也普遍存在明显的垂直分布格局:随着海拔升高,单位面积的叶氮含量(Narea)及最大光合速率增加,而比叶面积则减少。一般认为,长的叶寿命是对高寒及养分、水分贫乏等胁迫环境的适应,而短的叶寿命和(或)落叶性被认为是植物为了快速生长以及对干旱或寒冬等季节性胁迫环境的适应结果。根据成本-效益分析理论,在特定环境条件下叶寿命大小取决于形成并维护单位叶面积所需要的物质消耗与叶片碳收获的平衡,与常绿/落叶森林植被纬向/垂直地带性分布存在一种内在联系机理。因此,叶寿命及其相关叶性状成为将叶片水平上的生理生态实验数据扩展到整个群落冠层乃至生物地理群区的关键因子。加强叶寿命及其相关叶性状的格局分析研究,可为现有的区域生物地球化学循环模型与植被地理模型的连接(即区域植被动态模型)提供科学依据,这将有助于从机理上解释区域植被对全球变化的适应与响应机制。但是,以往植物生理生态研究大多注重于个体叶片水平的测定,仍不清楚如何实现这些叶性状在不同尺度间的转换,尤其是从叶片水平上升至整个群落冠层。国际上至今仍缺乏在生态系统水平上的大量野外观测数据来定量描述这些叶性状与群落特征、气候因子的数量关系;国内相关研究基本尚属空白。  相似文献
2.
Summary Which factors cause fast-growing plant species to achieve a higher relative growth rate than slow-growing ones? To answer this question 24 wild species were grown from seed in a growth chamber under conditions of optimal nutrient supply and a growth analysis was carried out. Mean relative growth rate, corrected for possible ontogenetic drift, ranged from 113 to 356 mg g–1 day–1. Net assimilation rate, the increase in plant dry weight per unit leaf area and unit time, varied two-fold between species but no correlation with relative growth rate was found. The correlation between leaf area ratio, the ratio between total leaf area and total plant weight, and relative growth rate was very high. This positive correlation was mainly due to the specific leaf area, the ratio between leaf area and leaf weight, and to a lesser extent caused by the leaf weight ratio, the fraction of plant biomass allocated to the leaves. Differences in relative growth rate under conditions of optimum nutrient supply were correlated with the soil fertility in the natural habitat of these species. It is postulated that natural selection in a nutrient-rich environment has favoured species with a high specific leaf area and a high leaf weight ratio, and consequently a high leaf area ratio, whereas selection in nutrient-poor habitats has led to species with an inherently low specific leaf area and a higher fraction of root mass, and thus a low leaf area ratio.  相似文献
3.
A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme   总被引:41,自引:2,他引:39  
Mark Westoby 《Plant and Soil》1998,199(2):213-227
A leaf-height-seed (LHS) plant ecology strategy scheme is proposed. The axes would be specific leaf area SLA (light-capturing area deployed per dry mass allocated), height of the plant's canopy at maturity, and seed mass. All axes would be log-scaled. The strategy of a species would be described by its position in the volume formed by the three axes.The advantages of the LHS scheme can be understood by comparing it to Grime's CSR scheme, which has Competitors, Stress-tolerators and Ruderals at the corners of a triangle. The CSR triangle is widely cited as expressing important strategic variation between species. The C–S axis reflects variation in responsiveness to opportunities for rapid growth; in the LHS scheme, SLA reflects the same type of variation. The R axis reflects coping with disturbance; in the LHS scheme, height and seed mass reflect separate aspects of coping with disturbance.A plant ecology strategy scheme that permitted any species worldwide to be readily positioned within the scheme could bring substantial benefits for improved meta-analysis of experimental results, for placing detailed ecophysiology in context, and for coping with questions posed by global change. In the CSR triangle the axes are defined by reference to concepts, there is no simple protocol for positioning species beyond the reference datasets within the scheme, and consequently benefits of worldwide comparison have not materialized. LHS does permit any vascular land plant species to be positioned within the scheme, without time-consuming measurement of metabolic rates or of field performance relative to other species. The merits of the LHS scheme reside (it is argued) in this potential for worldwide comparison, more than in superior explanatory power within any particular vegetation region.The LHS scheme avoids also two other difficulties with the CSR scheme: (a) It does not prejudge that there are no viable strategies under high stress and high disturbance (the missing quadrant in the CSR triangle compared to a two-axis rectangle); (b) It separates out two distinct aspects of the response to disturbance, height at maturity expressing the amount of growth attempted between disturbances, and seed mass (inverse of seed output per unit reproductive effort) expressing the capacity to colonize growth opportunities at a distance.The advantage of LHS axes defined through a single readily-measured variable needs to be weighed against the disadvantage that single plant traits may not capture as much strategy variation as CSR's multi-trait axes. It is argued that the benefits of potential worldwide comparison do actually outweigh any decrease in the proportion of meaningful variation between species that is captured. Further, the LHS scheme opens the path to quantifying what proportion of variation in any other ecologically-relevant trait is correlated with the LHS axes. This quantification could help us to move forward from unprofitable debates of the past 30 years, where CSR opponents have emphasized patterns that were not accommodated within the scheme, while CSR proponents have emphasized patterns that the scheme did account for.  相似文献
4.
Factors that contribute to interspecific variation in photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (PNUE, the ratio of CO2 assimilation rate to leaf organic nitrogen content) were investigated, comparing ten dicotyledonous species that differ inherently in specific leaf area (SLA, leaf area:leaf dry mass). Plants were grown hydroponically in controlled environment cabinets at two irradiances (200 and 1000 μmol m–2 s–1). CO2 and irradiance response curves of photosynthesis were measured followed by analysis of the chlorophyll, Rubisco, nitrate and total nitrogen contents of the leaves. At both irradiances, SLA ranged more than twofold across species. High-SLA species had higher in situ rates of photosynthesis per unit leaf mass, but similar rates on an area basis. The organic N content per unit leaf area was lower for the high-SLA species and consequently PNUE at ambient light conditions (PNUEamb) was higher in those plants. Differences were somewhat smaller, but still present, when PNUE was determined at saturating irradiances (PNUEmax). An assessment was made of the relative importance of the various factors that underlay interspecific variation in PNUE. For plants grown under low irradiance, PNUEamb of high-SLA species was higher primarily due to their lower N content per unit leaf area. Low-SLA species clearly had an overinvestment in photosynthetic N under these conditions. In addition, high SLA-species allocated a larger fraction of organic nitrogen to thylakoids and Rubisco, which further increased PNUEamb. High-SLA species grown under high irradiance showed higher PNUEamb mainly due to a higher Rubisco specific activity. Other factors that contributed were again their lower contents of Norg per unit leaf area and a higher fraction of photosynthetic N in electron transport and Rubisco. For PNUEmax, differences between species in organic leaf nitrogen content per se were no longer important and higher PNUEmax of the high SLA species was due to a higher fraction of N in␣photosynthetic compounds (for low-light plants) and a higher Rubisco specific activity (for high-light grown plants). Received: 11 October 1997 / Accepted: 9 April 1998  相似文献
5.
Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, we hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (R d) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (A max). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is similar among disparate biomes and plant functional types. We tested this idea by examining the interspecific relationships between R d measured at a standard temperature and leaf life-span, N, SLA and A max for 69 species from four functional groups (forbs, broad-leafed trees and shrubs, and needle-leafed conifers) in six biomes traversing the Americas: alpine tundra/subalpine forest, Colorado; cold temperate forest/grassland, Wisconsin; cool temperate forest, North Carolina; desert/shrubland, New Mexico; subtropical forest, South Carolina; and tropical rain forest, Amazonas, Venezuela. Area-based R d was positively related to area-based leaf N within functional groups and for all species pooled, but not when comparing among species within any site. At all sites, mass-based R d (R d-mass) decreased sharply with increasing leaf life-span and was positively related to SLA and mass-based A max and leaf N (leaf N mass). These intra-biome relationships were similar in shape and slope among sites, where in each case we compared species belonging to different plant functional groups. Significant R d-massN mass relationships were observed in all functional groups (pooled across sites), but the relationships differed, with higher R d at any given leaf N in functional groups (such as forbs) with higher SLA and shorter leaf life-span. Regardless of biome or functional group, R d-mass was well predicted by all combinations of leaf life-span, N mass and/or SLA (r 2≥ 0.79, P < 0.0001). At any given SLA, R d-mass rises with increasing N mass and/or decreasing leaf life-span; and at any level of N mass, R d-mass rises with increasing SLA and/or decreasing leaf life-span. The relationships between R d and leaf traits observed in this study support the idea of a global set of predictable interrelationships between key leaf morphological, chemical and metabolic traits. Received: 23 May 1997 / Accepted: 16 December 1997  相似文献
6.
研究了生长在不同沙丘生境中 (流动沙丘 ,半固定沙丘和固定沙丘 ) 2 0个植物种 (10个 1年生植物种和 10个多年生植物种 )的比叶面积 (SL A)和叶干物质含量 (L DMC)的变化 ,并且分析了各个沙丘生境的土壤养分特征。结果表明 ,各个植物种的平均 SL A和 L DMC在植物种之间差异显著 ;多数在两种或 3种沙丘生境均有分布的植物其 SL A在不同沙丘生境之间差异显著 ,但是仅有 6个植物种的 L DMC在不同沙丘生境之间表现出差异 (p<0 .0 5 )。与许多研究结果类似 ,1年生植物的 SL A显著大于多年生植物的 SL A,而且两者之间 L DMC存在一定的差异。 1年生植物 SL A和 L DMC之间相关性不显著 ,但多年生植物SL A和 L DMC之间呈显著负相关。综合所有 2 0个植物种可以发现 ,SL A增大时 ,L DMC有下降的趋势  相似文献
7.
The nutritional status of plants from high altitudes   总被引:26,自引:0,他引:26  
Ch. Körner 《Oecologia》1989,81(3):379-391
Summary Are plants at high altitudes short in nutrients? In order to answer this question the mineral nutrient content of leaves from over 150 plant species from 9 different mountain areas of all major climatic zones were analyzed (Kjeldahl nitrogen in all, phosphate in half of the samples, K, Mg, Mn, Ca in the Alps only). The majority of data are from herbaceous perennials, but shrubs and trees were studied as well. N-partitioning was studied in 45 herbaceous species from contrasting altitudes in the Alps. The survey falls into three categories: (1) comparisons of whole communities of species from contrasting altitudes, (2) analysis of altitudinal gradients, and (3) additional collections from high altitude sites alone. Unlike the other mineral nutrients, nitrogen content follows consistent altitudinal and latitudinal trends. The higher altitude sample always had higher N content per unit leaf area, irrespective of life form, wherever comparable plants (the same or related species) were investigated at contrasting altitudes. N content per unit dry weight (%) increased with altitude in herbaceous plants (in some species >4%), but was remarkably stable in evergreen woody plants (around 1%). The mean fraction of total plant N allocated to leaves of herbaceous plants in the Alps was the same at low and high altitude (1/3 of total). Leaf N (%) from the regional upper limits of higher plant life reveals a latitudinal decrease from subarctic to equatorial mountains, which may be related to the duration of annual leaf activity. Since mean N content per leaf area hardly differs between the uppermost sites, life span expectation (sink-duration) seems to control carbon investments rather than N input per leaf area. The growth of leaves at high altitude seems to be controlled in a way that leads to comparatively high nutrient contents, which in turn support high metabolic activity. Inherent developmental growth constraints inhibit nutrient dilution in the plant body and thus defy the application of classical concepts of plant-nutrient versus soil-nutrient relations developed for lowlands and in particular for cultivated plants. The results re-emphasize the global significance of links between nitrogen content, leaf sclerophylly, leaf longevity and photosynthetic capacity.Dedicated to Prof. Walter Larcher on the occasion of his 60th birthday, with thanks for leading me to comparative plant ecology  相似文献
8.
9.
10.
Laboratory experiments have shown a large difference in specific leaf area (SLA, leaf area: leaf mass) between species from nutrient-poor and nutrient-rich habitats, but no systematic difference in the construction costs (the amount of glucose required to construct 1 g biomass). We examined how far these patterns are congruent with those from field-grown plants. An analysis was made of the vegetation in a range of grasslands and heathlands differing in productivity. The SLA of the dominant species in 15 different habitats was determined, as well as chemical composition and construction costs of bulk samples of leaves. SLA in the field was generally lower than in the laboratory, but showed consistency in that the ranking across species remained the same. Species from highly productive habitats had higher SLA than those from sites of low productivity, although individual species sometimes deviated substantially from the general trend. Construction costs were similar for plants from different habitats. This was mainly due to the positive correlation between an expensive class of compounds (proteins) and a cheap one (minerals).  相似文献
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