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逐日气象要素空间插值方法的比较   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7       下载免费PDF全文
采用距离反比权重法(IDW)、协克里格法(CK)和薄盘样条法(TPS) 3种不同的空间插值方法,对我国1951—2005年气象数据完整的559个气象站点逐月第15日的平均基本气象要素(最高气温、最低气温、日照时数和降水量)进行了插值分析与评价.结果表明:3种插值方法中,TPS法对最高气温和最低气温插值的根均方差(RMSE)最小(1.02 ℃和1.12 ℃)、R2最大(0.9916和0.9913);不同季节中,TPS法对秋季最高气温、夏季最低气温进行插值的RMSE均最小(0.83 ℃、0.86 ℃),R2均为秋季最高.对于日照时数和降水量而言,TPS法的RMSE最小(0.59 h和1.01 mm)、R2最大(0.9118和0.8135);不同季节中,TPS法对冬季日照时数进行插值的RMSE最小(0.49 h)、R2最大(0.9293),TPS法对冬季降水量进行插值的RMSE最小(0.33 mm),IDW法对夏季降水量进行插值的RMSE最小(2.01 mm),CK法对春季降水量进行插值的R2最大(0.8781).TPS法可作为我国大量逐日基本气象要素的最优空间插值方法.  相似文献
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杉木种子涩籽地理分布的空间插值法研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
应用距离反比插值法进行杉木种子涩籽率的空间插值,并提出一种改进的距离反比插值法(MID),其包含了距离反比法(ID)和距离平方反比法(IDS)。根据福建省25个杉木种子产地的涩籽率观察值,建立了杉木种子涩籽率的改进距离反比插值模型。改进距离反比插值法经交叉验证,其平均误差及平均误差平方的平方根均较距离反比法和距离平方反比法更小,具有较高的精度,平均精度达88.91%,可应用于杉木种子涩籽的空间内插。这不仅为杉木种子涩籽的空间插值提供了一种新方法,而且为地理信息系统(Geographic information system,GIS)辅助的杉木种子涩籽区域分布与流行趋势研究提供了理论依据,为福建省杉木种子园的合理布局与优化奠定基础。  相似文献
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On estimation and prediction for spatial generalized linear mixed models   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Zhang H 《Biometrics》2002,58(1):129-136
We use spatial generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to model non-Gaussian spatial variables that are observed at sampling locations in a continuous area. In many applications, prediction of random effects in a spatial GLMM is of great practical interest. We show that the minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) prediction can be done in a linear fashion in spatial GLMMs analogous to linear kriging. We develop a Monte Carlo version of the EM gradient algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of model parameters. A by-product of this approach is that it also produces the MMSE estimates for the realized random effects at the sampled sites. This method is illustrated through a simulation study and is also applied to a real data set on plant root diseases to obtain a map of disease severity that can facilitate the practice of precision agriculture.  相似文献
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Yung-Ho Wang 《Biotropica》2008,40(1):44-54
Biological corridors connect forest fragments, minimize the isolation of remaining habitats, and reduce the negative impact of fragmentation. Important studies in a corridor include documentation of land cover and the relationships between the plant community and land cover changes. In this study, density, species richness, and species diversity of palms of different life stages and growth forms were documented in forty 10 × 10 m census plots in the San Juan Biological Corridor (SJBC), Costa Rica. Changes in the percent cover of agricultural, partially forested, and forested lands from 1979 to 2001 were quantified based on existing land classifications. Associations between these palm community characteristics and the reduction in forest cover in 200-m and 1000-m annuli surrounding the census plots were investigated. These palm community characteristics were spatially interpolated to examine their distributions in SJBC. The community characteristics of palms of all growth forms varied among census plots. Forested lands in SJBC decreased from 88 percent to 26 percent during 1979–2001, while the percentage cover of agricultural and partially forested lands increased. The annual deforestation rate was 0.8 percent from 1979 to 1992, 4.3 percent from 1992 to 1997, and 7.5 percent from 1997 to 2001. Overall, palm community characteristics of small-canopy palms, dwarf palms, and cotyledonous seedlings had lower values with a lower percentage forest cover. The spatially interpolated palm community characteristics were consistently greatest within or adjacent to protected areas. This study demonstrates the complexity of the landscape and the effect of loss of adjacent forests on the palm community.  相似文献
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基于回归和地理加权回归Kriging的土壤有机质空间插值   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
基于地形因子与土壤有机质的相关分析,选取相对高程和汇流动力指数作为辅助变量.以普通克里格(OK)作对照,比较地理加权回归克里格(GWRK)与回归克里格(RK)在土壤有机质空间插值及制图上的精度与效果.结果表明:土壤有机质含量与相对高程呈显著正相关,与汇流动力指数呈显著负相关;经半方差分析,土壤有机质及其插值残差具有强烈的空间自相关;对验证集中98个样点的精度加以分析,RK法插值结果的平均误差(ME)、平均绝对误差(MAE)、均方根误差(RMSE)较OK法分别降低39.2%、17.7%和20.6%,相对提高度(RI)为20.63,GWRK法插值结果的ME、MAE、RMSE较OK法分别降低60.6%、23.7%、27.6%,RI为59.79.与OK相比,考虑了辅助变量的RK和GWRK明显提高了插值精度;GWRK考虑了样点位置,成图效果更加精细,对土壤有机质的局部模拟效果优于RK.  相似文献
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海湾生态系统健康评价方法构建及在大亚湾的应用   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
根据海洋生态系统的压力-结构-响应框架模型,从压力指标、结构指标、响应指标等几个方面构建了海湾生态系统健康评价的指标体系,提出了基于GIS的海湾生态系统健康综合指数法.以春季大亚湾海洋生态系统为例进行实证研究.结果表明:大亚湾海湾生态系统春季的健康综合指数平均值为0.57±0.08,从总体看来,生态系统健康状态处于“较好”水平,浮游植物丰度、浮游植物多样性和生态缓冲容量是其主要健康负面因子,健康状况可能面临着向“临界”状态转化的危险.实证研究表明该方法适用性强、结果客观准确、形象生动,是一种值得推广的定量评价方法.  相似文献
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Patterns of coastal dune vegetation are closely related with soil conditions controlled by geomorphic forms and processes. This study developed a conceptual model integrating these relationships in a spatially explicit manner. A rectangle of 180 × 280 m containing 126 grids of 20 × 20 m was established in the Sindu coastal dunefield in west Korean Peninsula. Sampling from each grid determined 11 soil properties and identified percent cover of 21 woody and herbaceous plant species. Digital elevation models were generated by topographic survey and used to derive eight topographic parameters. Redundancy analysis and canonical correspondence analysis examined the effect of geomorphic factors on edaphic characteristics and the edaphic influence on spatial distribution of vegetation, respectively. The spatial pattern of soil properties and plant species were inferred from spatial interpolation techniques. In the foredune area, distance from the coastline was a significant indicator of soil nutrients derived from the marine sources by aeolian processes. This favored the dominance by Elymus mollis. Moisture-tolerant species (e.g., Calamagrostis epigeios) had high cover in the acidic soils of dune slacks, which covaried with wetness index, an indirect measure of the depth to the freshwater table. Vegetation–soil interactions (e.g., nitrogen fixation by legumes) were important in secondary dune areas, with topographic effects less significant. Vegetation, soil, and geomorphic factors are closely connected in a causal chain across a whole dune area. Our model thus addresses the importance of integrating foredune, dune slack, and secondary dune into one continuous system.  相似文献
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