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红砂和霸王种子萌发对干旱与播深条件的响应   总被引:20,自引:0,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
红砂(Reaumuria soongorica)和霸王(Zygophyllum xantho xylum)分别是我国西北干旱荒漠区重要的超旱生小灌木和灌木.试验室条件下,研究了两种灌木种子萌发对干旱胁迫(以PEG模拟干旱条件)和播深的响应.干旱胁迫设0、 -0.3、 -0.6、-0.9、-1.2、-1.5、-1.8、-2.1、-2.4、-2.7MPa共10个处理,播深设0、0 .3,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,3.0,4.0cm共8个处理.结果显示模拟干旱条件下,供试种的发芽势(3d发芽率)皆从-0.3MPa起即开始显著下降(P<0.05) .发芽率红砂从-0 .9MPa渗透势、霸王从-0.6MPa开始显著降低;种子萌发的最低渗透势阈值红砂和霸王分别为-1.8MPa和-1.5MPa.干旱胁迫对种子胚芽生长有抑制作用,但轻度干旱可促进初生根生长,重度干旱胁迫抑制初生根生长.播深实验表明,红砂和霸王种子均为子叶出土发芽类型 .一般情况下,供试种随播深增加胚芽长度呈增加而初生根呈下降趋势,但霸王在播于土表时初生根生长受到抑制.实验室条件下,达到最大出苗率的播深红砂为0~0.5cm,霸王为0 ~2cm.在适宜条件下,红砂和霸王种子萌发的最低需水量分别为110%和90%,初始萌发时间分别为40h和48h.红砂种子发芽势低(28%)、萌发持续而分散;霸王种子发芽势高(87%) 、萌发整齐.讨论了两种种子发芽对干旱和播深的响应特征及其生态生物学意义.  相似文献
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郑明清  郑元润  姜联合 《生态学报》2006,26(8):2474-2484
飞播固沙作为一项快速而有效的现代化治沙措施,已成为毛乌素沙地植被恢复与重建的重要手段。但此项技术仍存在一些问题,如飞播后成苗率较低等。以毛乌素沙地优势植物柠条(Caragana korshinskii)、羊柴(Hedysarum laeve)、油蒿(Artemisia ordosica)与籽蒿(Artemisia sphaerocephala)为研究对象,人工控制7个沙埋深度和9个水分梯度,研究4种植物种子萌发和幼苗出土对沙埋和单次供水的响应,阐明多大的单次降雨才能保证种子萌发与幼苗出土及出土幼苗的维持时间。结果表明,对于柠条和羊柴质量相对较大的种子而言.种子主要在供水量10.20mm,埋藏深度为0.5.2cm的条件下出苗,但在埋藏深度为5cm时这两个物种仍有少量种子能够出苗;而对于油蒿和籽蒿质量相对较小的种子而言,种子主要在供水量10.20mm,埋藏深度为0.5cm时出苗,当埋藏深度为1.5cm和2cm时不能顺利出苗。沙埋深度0.5cm条件下,4个物种具有最高的出苗率和出苗速率。在试验期内(30d),柠条、羊柴和油蒿出土幼苗分别在单次供水量为5、7.5mm和7.5mm时全部死亡,在单次供水量高于15mm时4个种的出土幼苗死亡率大多低于50%,且随供水量的增加出土幼苗死亡率降低。结合毛乌素沙地降雨特点与本次实验结果,0.5cm的沙埋及7.5mm以上的单次降雨是上述4种植物自然条件下出苗较好的重要条件。  相似文献
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光照、盐分和埋深对无芒隐子草(Cleistogenes songorica)和条叶车前(Plantago lessingii)种子萌发的影响研究结果显示,无芒隐子草和条叶车前种子为萌发需光性种子。随着盐(NaCl)浓度的增加,2种植物种子的发芽率呈直线下降趋势(P<0.01),但以条叶车前下降较为缓慢。当盐分浓度为0.4 mol.L-1时,2种植物种子皆不能萌发。低浓度的盐分促进胚根的生长,高浓度则表现为抑制作用;盐分对胚芽的生长则一直起抑制作用。2种植物种子发芽率随埋深的增加而减小,当埋深>2 cm时不能萌发。  相似文献
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BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Air seeding has long been regarded as a quick and successful measure for vegetation rehabilitation in China. However, seedling emergence of often-used species including Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii and Medicago sativa is low. Experiments were conducted under controlled conditions to study the effects of sowing depth and water supply on seedling emergence, in order to understand the requirements for increasing seedling emergence. METHODS: Seeds were exposed to different environments of burial and water supply regimes in PVC pots (7 cm in diameter and 11 cm in height) under the same light intensity and alternating temperature regimes in a growth chamber. KEY RESULTS: Seedlings of three species (Agriophyllum squarrosum, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Artemisia ordosica) with relatively light seeds emerged well at a 0.5 cm sowing depth under a 7.5 and 10 mm water supply regime. However, few seedlings of these species emerged when the sowing depth was over 1 cm or when water supply was 5 mm. Seedlings of Caragana korshinskii, Hedysarum fruticosum and Medicago sativa emerged from sowing depths of 0.5-4 cm, 0.5-3 cm, and 0.5-4 cm, respectively, under both 7.5 and 10 mm water supply regimes. Under a 5 mm water supply regime, seedlings of these species also emerged at over 1 cm sowing depth. Seeds of all six species sown on the surface of sand did not germinate, and seedlings did not emerge when they were sown at depths greater than 6 cm. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these experiments, a 0.5 cm sowing depth resulted in the highest seedling emergence and it is concluded that this is the optimal sowing depth for seedling emergence of all six species.  相似文献
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Analyses have been carried out on well-preserved carbonised rye and barley plants and associated plant remains preserved in iron smelting furnaces from southern Jutland, Denmark. The furnaces are dated archaeologically to the transition between the Roman and Germanic Iron Ages (ca. a.d. 400). The results of the analyses allow detailed reconstruction of the contemporary fields, revealing them as having been well tended with a dense stand of crop plants and few weeds. The composition of the weed assemblages suggests that the rye was autumn-sown. Analysis of the culm bases and roots showed that rye had probably been broadcast sown, followed by a light harrowing to cover the sown grain.  相似文献
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The effects of differential soil crusting, as achieved by varying the raindrop size, and depth of sowing on seedling emergence of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoides L.) were investigated. Three drop diameters: 2.75, 1.65 and 0.93 mm and four depths of sowing: 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm were studied. Mean time of emergence increased with increase in raindrop size and depth of sowing. Crops differed in their emergence capacity under adverse soil conditions from delay in the emergence of chickpea to complete failure in the case of pigeonpea. Pearl millet was not significantly affected by drop size but was found to be sensitive to depths beyond 4 cm. Within the chickpea crop, the variety H 208 was observed to have better emergence qualities than Pusa 209. Other parameters like epicotyl diameter, swelling index, and the area of crust broken by the emerging seedling were measured.  相似文献
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