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“源”“汇”景观理论及其生态学意义   总被引:42,自引:1,他引:41       下载免费PDF全文
陈利顶  傅伯杰  赵文武 《生态学报》2006,26(5):1444-1449
格局与过程的关系是景观生态学研究中的核心内容.景观格局指数是定量分析景观格局与生态过程的主要方法,但由于许多景观格局指数难以将格局与过程有机融合在一起而陷入困境,探讨景观格局分析中有效表征生态过程的理论与方法,对于景观生态学的发展具有积极意义.基于大气污染中的“源”“汇”理论,在已有研究基础上,提出了“源”“汇”景观的概念和理论.认为根据不同景观类型的功能,可以将他们划分为“源”“汇”两种景观类型,从而将过程的内涵融于景观格局分析中.该理论认为:(1)在格局与过程研究中,异质景观可以分为“源”“汇”景观两种类型,其中“源”景观是指那些能促进过程发展的景观类型,“汇”景观是那些能阻止或延缓过程发展的景观类型;(2)“源”“汇”景观的性质是相对的,对于某一过程的“源”景观,可能是另一过程的“汇”景观,“源”“汇”景观的分析必须针对特定的过程;(3)“源”“汇”景观区分的关键在于判断景观类型在生态过程演变中所起的作用,是正向推动作用还是负向滞缓作用;(4)不同类型“源”(或者“汇”)景观对于同一种生态过程的贡献是不同的,在分析景观格局对生态过程的影响时需要考虑这种作用的差异;(5)“源”“汇”景观理论可以应用于非点源污染、生物多样性保护、城市热岛效应等不同领域.“源”“汇”景观理论提出的主要目的是探究不同景观类型在空间上的动态平衡对生态过程影响,从而找到适合一个地区的景观空间格局.这一理论的提出有助于推动景观格局与生态过程研究的深入,希望以此为基础,通过大量的实证研究,丰富和完善“源”、“汇”景观的理论和方法.  相似文献
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Source-sink landscape theory and its ecological significance   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Exploring the relationships between landscape pattern and ecological processes is the key topic of landscape ecology, for which, a large number of indices as well as landscape pattern analysis model were developed. However, one problem faced by landscape ecologists is that it is hard to link the landscape indices with a specific ecological process. Linking landscape pattern and ecological processes has become a challenge for landscape ecologists. “Source” and “sink” are common concepts used in air pollution research, by which the movement direction and pattern of different pollutants in air can be clearly identified. In fact, for any ecological process, the research can be considered as a balance between the source and the sink in space. Thus, the concepts of “source” and “sink” could be implemented to the research of landscape pattern and ecological processes. In this paper, a theory of sourcesink landscape was proposed, which include: (1) In the research of landscape pattern and ecological process, all landscape types can be divided into two groups, “source” landscape and “sink” landscape. “Source” landscape contributes positively to the ecological process, while “sink” landscape is unhelpful to the ecological process. (2) Both landscapes are recognized with regard to the specific ecological process. “Source” landscape in a target ecological process may change into a “sink” landscape as in another ecological process. Therefore, the ecological process should be determined before “source” or “sink” landscape were defined. (3) The key point to distinguish “source” landscape from “sink” landscape is to quantify the effect of landscape on ecological process. The positive effect is made by “source” landscape, and the negative effect by “sink” landscape. (4) For the same ecological process, the contribution of “source” landscapes may vary, and it is the same to the “sink” landscapes. It is required to determine the weight of each landscape type on ecological processes. (5) The sourcesink principle can be applied to non-point source pollution control, biologic diversity protection, urban heat island effect mitigation, etc. However, the landscape evaluation models need to be calibrated respectively, because different ecological processes correspond with different source-sink landscapes and evaluation models for the different study areas. This theory is helpful to further study landscape pattern and ecological process, and offers a basis for new landscape index design. __________ Translated from Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2006, 26(5): 1444–1449 [译自: 生态学报]  相似文献
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Exploring the relatiouships between landscape pattern and ecological processes is the key topic of landscape ecology,for which,a large number of indices as well as landscape pattern analysis model were developed.However,one problem faced by landscape ecologists is that it is hard to link the landscape indices with a specific ecological process.Linking landscape pattern and ecological processes has become a challenge for landscape ecologists."Source" and "sink" are common concepts used in air pollution research,by which the movement direction and pattern of different pollutants in air can be clearly identified.In fact,for any ecological process,the research can be considered as a balance between the source and the sink in space.Thus,the concepts of "source" and "sink" could be implemented to the research of landscape pattern and ecological processes.In this paper,a theory of sourcesink landscape was proposed,which include:(1) In the research of landscape pattern and ecological process,all landscape types can be divided into two groups,"source"landscape and "sink" landscape."Source" landscape contributes positively to the ecological process,while "sink" landscape is unhelpful to the ecological process.(2) Both landscapes are recognized with regard to the specific ecological process."Source" landscape in a target ecological process may change into a "sink"landscape as in another ecological process.Therefore,the ecological process should be determined before "source"or "sink" landscape were defined.(3) The key point to distinguish "source" landscape from "sink" landscape is to quantify the effect of landscape on ecological process.The positive effect is made by "source" landscape,and the negative effect by "sink" landscape.(4) For the same ecological process,the contribution of "source" landscapes may vary,and it is the same to the "sink"landscapes.It is required to determine the weight of each landscape type on ecological processes.(5) The sourcesink principle can be applied to non-point source pollution control,biologic diversity protection,urban heat island effect mitigation,etc.However,the landscape evaluation models need to be calibrated respectively,because different ecological processes correspond with different source-sink landscapes and evaluation models for the different study areas.This theory is helpful to further study landscape pattern and ecological process,and offers a basis for new landscape index design.  相似文献
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