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秸秆预处理对土壤微生物量及呼吸活性的影响   总被引:16,自引:7,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
冬小麦秸秆经8.0g·L^-1H2O2(pH11.0)溶液、12.5g·L^-1 NaOH溶液或H2SO4溶液浸泡8h并80℃烘干后,与无机N一起加入土壤,进行室内25℃恒温培养试验,在不同时间测定土壤微生物量C、N和CO2释放速率。结果表明,培养前期,秸秆预处理使土壤微生物量C数量增加了1.0~1.4倍,但降低了土壤微生物的呼吸活性;培养后期,NaOH和H2SO4处理使土壤微生物量C分别下降了28%和42%,但增加了土壤微生物的呼吸活性;H2O2处理则使土壤微生物量N增加90%;土壤微生物区系中的真菌比例在不同时刻有所增加,表明将秸秆预处理后施入土壤,将对土壤中微生物数量和呼吸活性产生一定影响。  相似文献
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Effect of carbon dioxide concentration on microbial respiration in soil   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
In order to assess the validity of conventional methods for measuring CO2 flux from soil, the relationship between soil microbial respiration and ambient CO2 concentration was studied using an open-flow infra-red gas analyser (IRGA) method. Andosol from an upland field in central Japan was used as a soil sample. Soil microbial respiration activity was depressed with the increase of CO2 concentration in ventilated air from 0 to 1000 ppmv. At 1000 ppmv, the respiration rate was less than half of that at 0 ppmv. Thus, it is likely that soil respiration rate is overestimated by the alkali absorption method, because CO2 concentration in the absorption chamber is much lower than the normal level. Metabolic responses to CO2 concentration were different among groups of soil microorganisms. The bacteria actinomycetes group cultivated on agar medium showed a more sensitive response to the CO2 concentration than the filamentous fungi group.  相似文献
3.
Summary The inhibition of the respiration rate by the heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn was investigated in five Dutch soil types in relation to the length of time these heavy metals were present in the soil. The amounts of heavy metal added as chloride salts to the soils were 0, 55, 150, 400, 1000, 3000 and 8000 g·g–1, respectively. The measurements were carried out both immediately after the addition of the heavy metals and approximately 18 months later. The inhibition during the first two to eight weeks was not obscured by an extra nutrient flush to drying. During the 18 months, the toxicity decreased but was still significant. Inhibition was greatest in the sandy soil and least in the clay soil. In a loam soil and in a sandy peat soil, the inhibiting effects were intermediate, but distinct. The main abiotic factors responsible for these different degrees of inhibition were the clay fraction for Cd, the Fe content for Cu, Pb and Zn and the pH for Ni. Although clay, Fe, and Mn together with the organic matter fraction, determine the total cation exchange capacity of soil, their contribution to the toxicity of heavy metals may be antagonistic. The latter may increase the mobility due to chelation and therefore possibly increase the toxicity, while the other factors may bind the heavy metals and therefore decrease the toxicity.  相似文献
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为阐明小兴安岭地带性植被原始红松林土壤呼吸各组分的碳排放速率及其对土壤水热变化的响应规律,采用挖壕法和红外气体分析法测定土壤表面CO2通量(Rs),确定4种原始红松林群落类型生长季的土壤总呼吸(Rt)中土壤微生物呼吸(Rh),根系呼吸(Rr)和凋落物呼吸(Rl)的贡献量动态变化及其影响因子。结果表明:生长季内,4种原始红松林群落类型的Rt、Rh、Rr具有明显的季节性变化,7-9月份较高,6月份和10月份较低。Rh对Rt的贡献量最高,平均在58.8%;Rr对Rt的贡献量次之,平均为26.5%;Rl对Rt的贡献量相对较小,平均为12.5%。生长季土壤呼吸速率与5 cm深土壤温度相关性极显著(P<0.01)。Rr和Rh的Q10值分别为2.88和2.23。表明根呼吸对土壤温度的敏感性高于微生物呼吸。生长季平均土壤呼吸速率的依次为:椴树红松林(6.38μmol?m-2?s-1)>云冷杉红松林(6.32μmol?m-2?s-1)>枫桦红松林(5.95μmol?m-2?s-1)>蒙古栎红松林(286μmol?m-2?s-1)。4种原始叶红松林群落类型间的Rh和Rr也存在一定差异。  相似文献
5.
通过分析九段沙不同演替阶段湿地土壤微生物呼吸及其土壤微环境因子,研究了不同类型湿地土壤微生物呼吸的差异性及其影响因素。结果表明,处于不同植被演替阶段的湿地土壤微生物呼吸具有显著差异(P<0.05),海三棱藨草区高于芦苇区,互花米草区最高(0.367 mgCO2.g-1.24h-1)),互花米草的引种及蔓延增强了入侵区域土壤微生物呼吸。综合考虑不同植被类型湿地土壤微生物呼吸及植被生物量,芦苇区呼吸微弱、植被生物量最高,在理论上具有更高的有机碳碳汇聚能力。通径分析结果显示,影响土壤微生物呼吸强度的主要生物因素有:原核微生物多样性(Shannon指数)和土壤微生物生物量;土壤有机质、硝态氮及土壤含水量对上述微生物活性指标有显著影响,因此也属于土壤微生物呼吸的主要影响因素。  相似文献
6.
Carbon mineralization in the southern Sonoran Desert   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
We measured carbon mineralization in four different desert habitats (Arroyos, Hillsides, Canopies-Plains and Open-Plains) and the separate effect of litter addition from annual and perennial plants on soil microbial respiration using two laboratory soil incubation experiments. The differences in total aboveground phytomass among habitats correlates with soil nutrient content, soil particulate organic matter (POM) and consequently, C mineralization. The Arroyos habitat with the highest perennial plant phytomass and litter production, had the highest soil nutrient content, soil POM and C mineralization. Litter from annual plants had twice the P concentration than litter from the perennials, but only half the N concentration. Soil microbial respiration was higher with annual plant litter than with perennial plant litter in the Hillsides and Canopies-Plains, suggesting that microbial activity in both habitats was improved by litter with a higher C quality. In contrast, in the poorest habitat, the Open-Plains, the better response to the addition of perennial plant litter suggests that microbial activity may have been constrained by N input.  相似文献
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