首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   5篇
  完全免费   10篇
  2015年   2篇
  2014年   1篇
  2013年   2篇
  2011年   2篇
  2010年   2篇
  2009年   3篇
  2006年   1篇
  2005年   1篇
  2004年   1篇
排序方式: 共有15条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
调查和分析了岷江上游大沟流域的 4个坡向 (偏东坡N -E80°、偏西坡N -W 85°、偏南坡S -E10°、偏北坡N-W2 0°)人工油松 (Pinustabuliformis)林下地表苔藓植物的物种多样性、组成和结构特征。在 4个坡向的油松林下共发现 13种苔藓 ,各林下苔藓物种组成数量在 6 - 13种之间 ,并且具有较高的相似性。冰川青藓 (Brachytheci um glacile)、大羽藓 (Thuidiumcymbifolium)、厚角绢藓 (Entodonconcinnus)、密叶美喙藓 (Eurhynchiumsavatieri)、小酸土藓 (Oxysteguscuspidatus)和光萼苔 (Porellapinnata)为这 4个坡向油松林下的共有种 ,其中冰川青藓、大羽藓为优势物种。 4个坡向人工油松幼林下地表苔藓植物出现频率分别为 10 0 % (偏西、偏北油松林 )和 96 .7% (偏东、偏南油松林 ) ,其平均盖度、平均密度、平均厚度分别在 5 .5 0 %± 0 .90 %至 2 5 .6 6 %± 2 .76 %、4 80 .6 7± 133.6 5至 2 72 4 .80± 4 19.72株 /m2 和 4 .73± 0 .31至 6 .83± 0 .73mm之间。无论是苔藓植物层片的多样性指数还是结构参数 ,均以偏东坡向的油松林下为最低 ;而偏西坡向的油松林下除厚度略低于偏南坡向外 ,其他指标均最高。综合研究结果表明 ,坡向是形成苔藓植物物种多样性组成和结构差异的重要环境因素 ,对苔藓植物的生存  相似文献
2.
黄土丘陵沟壑区不同植被区土壤生态化学计量特征   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
朱秋莲  邢肖毅  张宏  安韶山 《生态学报》2013,33(15):4674-4682
以黄土丘陵沟壑区3个植被区(森林区、森林草原区、草原区)不同坡向土壤作为研究对象,对土壤有机C、全N、全P、全K含量及其化学计量特征进行了研究.结果表明,不同植被区、坡向和土层土壤养分含量及其化学计量特征均有明显不同.土壤有机C、全N变异性较大,全P、全K变异性较小.表层土壤养分含量显著高于底层土壤;同一土层之间有机C、全N含量变异性较大,全P、全K含量变异性较小.不同坡向之间养分含量不同,阴坡最大,阳坡最小.土壤养分含量受植被类型及植被盖度的影响,森林区>草原区>森林草原区.土壤C/N、C/P、C/K、N/P、N/K比都较稳定,C/N比的变化范围为5.65-12.57,平均值为9.44; C/P比的变化范围为3.62-17.32,平均值为8.15;C/K比的变化范围为0.10-0.55,平均值为0.26;N/P比的变化范围为0.43-1.38,平均值为0.86; N/K比的变化范围为0.01-0.05,平均值为0.03;P/K比值较稳定,为0.03.土壤有机C和全N极显著正相关,全N和全P极显著正相关.  相似文献
3.
不同坡向人工油松林生长状况与林下物种多样性分析   总被引:5,自引:1,他引:4  
采用野外调查的方法,研究了绥德地区28年生不同坡向人工油松林林木个体生长、植物种类、相似系数和林下物种多样性特征,以明确坡向对人工油松林生长和群落结构的影响.结果显示,(1)阴坡油松的胸径、树高、冠高和冠幅均显著大于阳坡;(2)阴坡与阳坡林下分别有植物21和19种,共有种11种.群落相似系数为55%,说明坡向对人工油松林林下物种组成影响较大.(3)阴坡物种丰富度指数、均匀度指数和多样性指数均表现为草本层>灌木层;而阳坡的Shannon-Wiener指数和Pielou指数(Jsw)则与阴坡相反,为灌木层>草本层;群落总体多样性表现为丰富度指数和多样性指数均是阴坡稍大于阳坡,而均匀度指数表现为阳坡稍大于阴坡.研究表明,绥德地区人工油松林的生长状况阴坡显著优于阳坡,但与陕北南部地区人工油松林相比,该地区人工油松林林木生长各项指标还是较低,群落结构配置不合理.  相似文献
4.
陕西黄土高原刺槐枯落叶生态化学计量学特征   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
生态系统元素平衡是当前全球变化生态学和生物地球化学循环研究的焦点和热点,生态化学计量学结合了生物学、物理学和化学等基本原理,是研究生物系统能量平衡与多重化学元素平衡的科学,为研究元素在生物地球化学循环与生态过程中的规律及其之间的计量关系提供了一种综合的方法。以陕西黄土高原人工刺槐林为研究对象,结合纬度和坡向两个因素,分析了三原、淳化、耀州区、宜君、黄陵、洛川、富县、甘泉、宝塔区、安塞、米脂、神木12个县区的刺槐枯落叶生态化学计量学特征。结果发现,阳坡刺槐枯落叶C、N、P含量的变化范围分别为318.34—428.01 g/kg、13.27—24.07 g/kg、1.66—2.57 g/kg;阴坡刺槐枯落叶C、N、P含量的变化范围分别为306.70—433.68 g/kg、12.55—24.39 g/kg、1.62—2.99 g/kg。阳坡刺槐枯落叶C∶N、C∶P、N∶P的变化范围分别为14.23—24.61、148.67—215.92、7.37—14.47;阴坡刺槐枯落叶C∶N、C∶P、N∶P的变化范围分别为16.87—26.54、130.06—234.41、7.05—13.22。随着纬度的升高,刺槐枯落叶C、N显著下降,刺槐枯落叶P、C∶N、C∶P、N∶P无明显差异。刺槐枯落叶C、N、P之间呈显著正相关。刺槐枯落叶C、N、P、C∶N、C∶P、N∶P在阴坡和阳坡之间无明显差异。研究区,阴坡和阳坡的刺槐枯落叶N∶P均较低,刺槐林土壤的全氮平均含量也低于全国平均水平,推测陕西黄土高原刺槐林的生长可能主要受到氮素的限制。  相似文献
5.
刺槐树冠光合作用的空间异质性   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
郑元  赵忠  周慧  周靖靖 《生态学报》2010,30(23):6399-6408
林木冠层是森林与外界环境相互作用最直接的部分,冠层光合作用是研究森林生产力的基础。为了深入了解冠层内部光合作用的差异性,以陕西省永寿县马莲滩流域阳坡和阴坡立地的刺槐林为研究对象,对比分析了光合速率(An)、蒸腾速率(E)、水分利用效率(WUE)、气孔导度(gs)、羧化效率(Vc)、水汽压亏缺(VPD)、气孔限制值(ls)、光合有效辐射(PAR)、空气温度(Ta)在树冠不同层次、不同方位,以及不同坡向之间的差异性。结果表明,刺槐树冠不同层次的光合作用差异性显著,大部分光合生理生态指标表现为:上 > 中 > 下。对于阳坡刺槐,VPD、Ta、gs、E是影响不同层次An的主要因子;对于阴坡刺槐,VPD、E、PAR是影响不同层次An的主要因子。光合作用在刺槐树冠的不同方位没有显著差异,大多数光合指标变化很小,E、ls、PAR、Ta是影响不同方位An的主要因子。对于刺槐冠层内部的任何层次或方位,阴坡刺槐具有更高的日均An、E、Vc、VPD、ls,而阳坡刺槐具有更高的日均WUE、gs、PAR、Ta。阳坡刺槐树冠中层西方和阴坡中层东方的日总光合速率值,可以分别代表阳坡和阴坡刺槐整个冠层的日总光合速率。研究认为,在冠层水平模拟和估计森林生产力时,必须考虑冠层光合作用的空间异质性,对于从单木到林分的尺度推演和模型拟合具有重要的意义。  相似文献
6.
坡向对海拔梯度上祁连圆柏树木生长的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
 选择青海省同德县南部河北林场的一个连续坡面, 根据不同海拔和坡向设置4个采样点, 采集祁连圆柏(Sabina przewalskii)树轮数据, 分析不同海拔和坡向对树木生长的影响。结果表明: 坡面上部3个采样点的树轮年表特征值均呈一定的变化规律——平均敏感值(MS)和标准差(SD)随海拔升高而增大, 一阶自相关(AC)随海拔升高而递减, 下限年表特征值均表现出与其他3点的不同, 都是最值(MS和SD均最大, AC最小); 年表间相关和主成分分析结果都显示出海拔梯度上的变化规律,但下限差异显著; 树轮指数与当年6–8月平均气温的相关系数呈增强趋势, 森林上限受当年7、8月平均气温影响较大, 下限树轮指数不仅与当年6月和前一年11月的气温显著负相关, 而且受前一年8月和当年5月的月降水量影响显著。与通常情况“下限树木生长受降水制约”比较, 这里的温度作用增强而降水限制减弱。显然, 坡向扭转是海拔梯度上影响祁连圆柏生长变化的重要因子。  相似文献
7.
The species–environment relationships for woody species may vary according to the forest layers considered. In fragmented forest, spatial configuration may also influence forest layer composition. We investigated the relationships between four forest layer compositions and environmental conditions, and spatial variables accounting for forest fragmentation, in 59 forest stands. Field and shrub layer compositions were mainly linked to environmental conditions, particularly to soil pH and slope aspect, while the upper layer compositions were principally correlated to the spatial configuration. The distance from the forest edge was correlated with all the forest layer compositions. Our results suggest that woody species respond to factors acting at different spatial and temporal scales, depending on the forest layer they belong to. The species–environment relationship seems to weaken from the lower to upper layer, the upper layer being more closely linked to the spatial configuration and probably to the past management. This study underlines the importance of taking spatial configuration in addition to environmental conditions into account when studying woody plant diversity for different forest layers in stands located in deciduous fragmented forests. Moreover, stand history seems to have a lasting effect on woody plant composition, particularly for the tree layer.  相似文献
8.
Abstract:  Classical biological control of weeds is based on the assumptions that: (1) plant species are in part invasive in their introduced range because of the absence of coevolved specialist herbivore arthropods and plant pathogens; and (2) that these specialist herbivores can regulate host-plant populations. Although the need for quantitative post-release monitoring studies testing these assumptions has been acknowledged repeatedly, the number of assessments is still remarkably small and usually restricted to systems with notable impact of an agent species. However, studying systems where biological control agents cause no observable target weed reductions may be important to identifying factors that limit the population size or impact of biological control agents. Three biological agents were released for the control of the herbaceous perennial rush skeletonweed, Chondrilla juncea in North America between 1975 and 1977. Although all three species are widely established, weed densities are increasing and there is little quantitative information on factors limiting biological control efficacy. We examined the winter biology and survivorship of the rush skeletonweed gall mite Aceria chondrillae at two rush skeletonweed field sites in south-western Idaho over 2 years. Gall mite winter mortality was high (>90%) in both years and for both sites. Gall mites were more abundant on plants that produced rosettes in fall and rush skeletonweed plants growing on southern aspect were 3.4 times more likely to produce rosettes than those growing on northern aspects. Our data suggest that A. chondrillae population densities are limited by its high winter mortality. The gall mites may require fall rosettes to successfully survive the winter, which are commonly absent on north-facing aspects, impairing the efficacy of A. chondrillae to control rush skeletonweed in the intermountain western United States.  相似文献
9.
Shennongjia represents an area of considerable plant biodiversity, not only for China but for the whole world. The numerous species are distributed along an altitude gradient. The genus Fagus, commonly known as Beeches, constitutes one of the dominant woody species of the humid temperate forests in China. This paper deals with the community structure of a mixed, broadleaved deciduous-evergreen beech forest dominated by the Fagus engleriana and Cyclobalanopsis oxyodon, which occurs along an altitude gradient range in this area. The community consists of 46 woody species, belonging to 22 families and 27 genera. The tree layer can be divided into three sub-strata. The upper layer is composed of deciduous trees, 80.7% of which is E engleriana. The second and third layers are dominated by the evergreen species, such as C. oxyodon and the Rhododendron hypoglaucum. These species increase from 55.9% in the second layer to 80.5% in the third, and regeneration at that rate allows us to assume that the stability of the community may be guaranteed. The micro-site heterogeneity plays an important role in maintaining species diversity in plant communities. In this research, a terrain surface of 0.96 hm<'2> was simulated using the digital elevation model (DEM) in order to analyze the influence of the topography on plant community structures on a small scale. The slope relief aspect obtained with the DEM showed an accentuated heterogeneity. Semivariance analysis was used to measure the heterogeneity scale. The range and nugget variance of the semivariograms for slope were 285.8 and 280.5, respectively; for aspect, were 21.8 and 498, respectively. The elevated value of the nugget variance suggested that even on a small scale, the topographic variations influenced the species distribution. Twenty-four species were selected to estimate the correlation coefficient between the slope, aspect, and orientation. Then based on the correlation results using the Square Euclidean Distance cluster analysis, the 24 species were divided into four groups.  相似文献
10.
Measurements of the net radiation balance of two forested sites on the opposite slopes of a valley in south-western Germany, made over 3 years, are presented in this study. Radiation sensors were mounted horizontally on two measurement towers above two beech stands. The direct part of the measured short-wave incoming radiation was adjusted according to the slopes angle to convert horizontally measured radiation data into surface-parallel radiation fluxes. During periods when contemporaneous measurements of slope-parallel and horizontal radiation fluxes were available, the calculation of surface-parallel radiation fluxes from the horizontally recorded net radiation components were compared with measured values. The net radiative fluxes parallel to the slopes were calculated for a period of 36 months and analysed. Results show that the different aspects of both sites cause significant differences of the net radiation balance. In June, when the elevation of the sun is highest, incoming solar radiation K received on the NE-slope was 9% lower than K received on the SW-slope. During the winter months, the differences were much greater and incoming solar radiation to the NE-slope was 50% of that to the SW-slope. Due to the differing solar irradiance, net radiation fluxes were significantly higher on the SW-slope than on the NE-slope. For long-wave radiation only small differences between both slopes could be found. Since radiative fluxes determine the energy balance and hence the microclimate and water balance of a forest stand, these differences in the net radiation balance between the slopes are important for the vegetation.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号