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1.
Mechanisms and regulation of reduction-based iron uptake in plants   总被引:14,自引:0,他引:14  
Despite the usually high abundance of iron (Fe) in soils, the low solubility of Fe-bearing minerals restricts the available Fe pools in most aerobic soils to levels that are far below those required for microbial or plant growth. To acquire the necessary amounts of Fe from the environment, organisms have evolved mechanisms that enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of Fe(iii) oxyhydroxides prevailing in aerobic soils. Chemically, these mechanisms are based on weakening of the Fe–O bond by reduction, chelation and protonation. Physiologically, two distinct and in all known cases mutually exclusive strategies can be distinguished: the excretion of siderophores capable of solubilizing external ferric Fe and subsequent uptake of the ferric siderophore complex; and reduction of Fe(iii) prior to uptake of the more soluble Fe2+ ion. With the exception of graminaceous species, in which Fe uptake is based on the former mechanism, the latter strategy is found in all cormophytes and certain algae, yeast and bacteria. In higher plants, the increase in their capacity to convert extracellular ferric to ferrous Fe is part of a series of physiological and morphological events that act in concert to achieve appropriate internal levels of Fe. It is this amalgam of features that determines the Fe efficiency of a species or cultivar that in turn affects the yield of economically important plants and the natural distribution of species. Adaptive changes to limited Fe availability have been studied at the molecular, physiological and whole-plant level. This review summarises current knowledge of the components of reduction-based Fe uptake in plants and presents an integrated view of the present understanding of mechanisms that control the rate and extent of Fe absorption by roots.  相似文献
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缺铁使大豆叶片激发能的耗散增加   总被引:14,自引:2,他引:12  
缺铁叶片的光合速率大幅度下降。这种降低可能不是色素含量降低的结果 ;而且缺铁对PSII复合物的活性影响很小 ;较高的PQ还原程度显示缺铁叶片PSII受体侧电子传递受阻 ,这可能是导致光合速率下降的主要因素。强光下缺铁叶片的天线转化效率比正常叶片低 ,用于光化学反应的激发能很少。缺铁导致大豆叶片激发能耗散增加。通过抑制剂处理和叶黄素组分的分析 ,可以认为在耗散过剩激发能的过程中 ,缺铁叶片充分启动了叶黄素循环  相似文献
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Nitric oxide and changes of iron metabolism in exercise   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
Accumulated data imply that exercise itself might not lead to a true iron deficiency or 'sport anaemia' in a healthy athlete who has adequate iron intake. The higher prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in younger female athletes might be not due to exercise itself, but probably results from dietary choices, inadequate iron intake and menstruation. These factors can also induce iron deficiency or anaemia in the general population. However, exercise does affect iron metabolism, leading to low or sub-optimal iron status. The underlying mechanism is unknown. In this review, recent advances in the study of the effect of exercise on iron metabolism and nitric oxide, and the relationship between nitric oxide and iron status in exercise are discussed. A hypothesis that increased production of nitric oxide might contribute to sub-optimal iron status in exercise is proposed.  相似文献
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Helicobacter pylori-related iron deficiency anemia: a review   总被引:10,自引:1,他引:9  
Several clinical reports have demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori gastric infection has emerged as a new cause of refractory iron deficiency anemia, unresponsive to iron therapy, and not attributable to usual causes such as intestinal losses or poor intake, malabsorption or diversion of iron in the reticulo-endothelial system. Although the interaction between infection and iron metabolism is now well consolidated, our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism underlying the anemia is still wanting. Microbiological and ferrokinetic studies seem to suggest that Helicobacter pylori infected antrum could act as a sequestering focus for serum iron by means of outer membrane receptors of the bacterium, that in vitro are able to capture and utilize for growth iron from human lactoferrin. The proposed hypothesis does not answer why this complication is such a rare disease outcome in a common human infection but it may be used as a template for further controlled studies to determine the mechanisms of this atypical, medically important putative sequelae of H. pylori infection.  相似文献
5.
Free radical mediated effects on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract were studied by supplementing 8 mg of iron orally for 15 days to groups of both control (C+) and iron deficient (D+) rats. They were compared with their respective unsupplemented groups C and D. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine into the isolated mucosal cells, as a measure of cell turn over, was lowered significantly in both the D+ and C+ groups compared to their respective controls D and C. It was observed that a single dose of 8 mg of iron given orally to control rats could cause apoptosis of GI tract mucosal cells as shown by the ladder pattern of DNA on electrophoresis. Continuous administration of the same dose of iron for a period of 15 days resulted in necrosis of the GI tract absorptive surface in D+ and C+ rats. In addition to this, a reduction of microvillus height in C+ and complete erosion of the same in D+ were observed by the transmission electron microscopy. EPR spectroscopy identified production of hydroxyl and methoxyl radicals in both the luminal and mucosal contents in the GI tract of rats. These results suggest that when iron is orally administered, free radicals are formed at the site of absorption causing damage to the GI tract mucosa.  相似文献
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黄瓜、番茄和大豆对缺铁胁迫适应性反应的差异   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
黄瓜、番茄和大豆同是双子叶植物,缺铁诱导的适应性机制都属于机理I,但是它们在适应缺铁胁迫的具体反应上却各有不同。黄瓜、蕃茄缺铁时主要表现为近根尖处膨大、变粗,根毛增多,发育成具有转移细胞特征,并主动向外分泌大量H+,使根系对Fe(Ⅲ)还原能力显著增强,从而提高了根际中铁的有效性。大豆则主要是依靠根尖膨大、变粗,表皮、皮层中积累大量酚类物质来还原难溶性Fe3+化合物。植物基因型之间对缺铁胁迫的这种反应上的差异,给铁高效基因型筛选和遗传育种工作提供了广阔的前景。  相似文献
8.
Transferrin and Iron Uptake by the Brain: Effects of Altered Iron Status   总被引:6,自引:3,他引:3  
Transferrin (Tf) and iron uptake by the brain were measured in rats using 59Fe-125I-Tf and 131I-albumin (to correct for the plasma content of 59Fe and 125I-Tf in the organs). The rats were aged from 15 to 63 days and were fed (a) a low-iron diet (iron-deficient) or, as control, the same diet supplemented with iron, or (b) a chow diet with added carbonyl iron (iron overload), the chow diet alone acting as its control. Iron deficiency was associated with a significant decrease and iron overload with a significant increase in brain nonheme iron concentration relative to the controls. In each dietary treatment group, the uptake of Tf and iron by the brain decreased as the rats aged from 15 to 63 days. Both Tf and iron uptake were significantly greater in the iron-deficient rats than in their controls and lower in the iron-loaded rats than in the corresponding controls. Overall, iron deficiency produced about a doubling and iron overload a halving of the uptake values compared with the controls. In contrast to that in the brain, iron uptake by the femurs did not decrease with age and there was relatively little difference between the different dietary groups. 125I-Tf uptake by the brains of the iron-deficient rats increased very rapidly after injection of the labelled proteins, within 15 min reaching a plateau level which was maintained for at least 6 h. The uptake of 59Fe, however, increased rapidly for 1 h and then more slowly, and in terms of percentage of injected dose reached much higher values than did 125I-Tf uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献
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