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1.
森林幼苗更新对光环境异质性的响应研究进展   总被引:23,自引:1,他引:22       下载免费PDF全文
在分析森林光环境异质性特点的基础上,从幼苗的光合、热耗散、生物量累积和分配、形态特征、萌发和种群动态等方面综述了国内外在森林幼苗更新对光环境异质性响应的研究进展.从森林物种多样性维持、森林演替和植被恢复角度探讨了幼苗更新对光环境异质性不同响应的生态学意义,并对今后该方面研究提出建议.  相似文献
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中国东北小兴安岭阔叶红松林更新及其恢复研究   总被引:22,自引:2,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
李俊清  李景文 《生态学报》2003,23(7):1268-1277
研究了中国东北小兴安岭地区阔叶红松林的更新和红松的生长及其影响因素。研究结果表明由于成树树冠的遮蔽作用所导致的光照减少是制约幼树生长和存活的关键因素。阔叶红松林是该区最典型和稳定的植被类型,但是在过去的50a中,由于皆伐和更新不良导致了它的分布面积和蓄积量的减少。阔叶红松林是地带性“顶极”植被,并通过具有连续性年龄结构的树种有规律的替代和演替过程中不同阔叶树种组成而处于优势地位。这种林型无疑应作为一种重要的基因库加以保护。次生阔叶林是在阔叶红松林受干扰后出现的,但它的种类组成简单,而且结构也很不稳定。因此,必须对现有的林分结构加以调整以利于林分的长期稳定和高产。同时,提出了红松阔叶林的恢复和重建的经营方式。  相似文献
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采用"空间代替时间"的方法,对云南哀牢山徐家坝地区湿性常绿阔叶林及不同类型次生植被中木本植物幼苗的种类组成、数量及更新方式等进行了调查.结果表明:在所有调查样地中,共记录到木本植物幼苗46种,其中乔木31种、灌木15种.荒草地、滇山杨林、栎类萌生林、原生林4种不同植被类型的幼苗密度分别是(421.9±59.5)、(34.4±8.1)、(31.6±7.2)、(18.5±6.6)株·25 m-2.随着演替的进行,灌木的比例逐渐减小,乔木的比例则逐渐增加.在森林恢复演替过程中,处于演替初期的荒草地灌木萌生更新占优势,到了演替后期则以乔木萌生幼苗更新为主.随着群落演替进程的增加,幼苗密度逐渐减少,幼苗生活型和木本植物的幼苗更新方式均发生变化.  相似文献
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Species-rich native grasslands in western Victoria, Australia, are often small, have a high perimeter to area ratio and are surrounded by non-native species. Few non-native species, however, have invaded them. A feature of species-rich grasslands is the presence of a bryophyte mat (composed of mosses and liverworts) that carpets the intertussock spaces. I assessed the role of these mats in plant invasions by sowing three non-native species (Briza maxima, Hypochoeris radicata, Plantago lanceolata) in replicated disturbed (mats removed) and undisturbed (mats intact) microsites at three grassland remnants (two recently burnt, one unburnt for 3 years) and followed seedling emergence, survival and growth for 5 months. Three native species were also sown for comparison. The rate of germination and total percent germination of non-native species were significantly enhanced at both burnt sites when the mat was disturbed. The large-seeded Briza maxima failed to germinate at both burnt sites in the absence of soil disturbance. The native species generally did not show a strong germination or growth response to soil disturbance in burnt areas. At the unburnt site, where monthly percent soil moisture was highest, final percent germination of the non-native and native species was greatest of any site in both microsites, and germination was not significantly affected by soil disturbance. Differences in the seed morphology of native and non-native species may play an important role in their ability to establish on bryophyte mats in moisture-limiting environments. Any activity that disrupts the mats in the frequently burnt, species-rich grassland remnants is likely to significantly enhance the germination and subsequent growth by non-natives. However, where burning is infrequent, germination of some non-native species may be expected, regardless of disturbance, although growth will likely be favoured in disturbed areas.  相似文献
7.
Genetic variation in postfire aspen seedlings in yellowstone national park   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
A rare episode of regeneration of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) by seeds occurred in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming, USA, following extensive fires that occurred in 1988. In 1997, we sampled 410 aspen seedlings from 23 local populations distributed widely across YNP to determine how genetic diversity varies with elevation, substrate, plant competition, ungulate browsing, and geographical location. We employed 132 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers based on six primers to show genetic relationships within and among the postfire aspen seedling populations. Measures of genetic variation, including estimates of percentage polymorphic loci, expected heterozygosity, and Nei's FST, indicated that most of the variation occurred within rather than among local populations. There was no indication of geographical differentiation among sampled populations based on hierarchal estimates of Nei's FST, neighbour-joining, or correlations between genetic distance and geographical distance. Even genetically distant populations shared nearly 90% of the same markers. Within plots, the amount of genetic variation decreased slightly in response to increased percentage vegetative cover, mean seedling basal diameter, and mean seedling height. Geological substrate, density of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Dougl.) seedlings, browsing intensity, and elevation were not significantly related to levels of genetic variation within the seedling plots. These data suggest that genetic variation and geographical structure among seedling populations may occur over time as the transition from seedling-dominated stands to clone-dominated stands occurs.  相似文献
8.
郭柯  刘海江 《生态学报》2004,24(9):2024-2028
对浑善达克沙地腹地风蚀低地、覆沙草地、平坦流动沙地和流动沙丘阴坡 4种类型生境中植物群落和榆树幼苗生长的比较研究结果表明 :(1)尽管单个样方内植物种数生境间没有差异 ,但群落总盖度覆沙草地的最低 ,流动沙丘阴坡上的居中 ,风蚀低地和流沙平地的最高。榆树幼苗的分盖度风蚀低地的最高 ,在流沙平地的次之 ,在覆沙草地的最低 ,流动沙丘阴坡的介于流沙平地和覆沙草地的中间 ,但与二者没有显著性差异 ;(2 )风蚀低洼地的幼苗生长的最好 ,平均高度、主根长度、叶片数和叶面积均显著大于生长在覆沙草地和流沙平地的幼苗的。生长在流动沙丘阴坡上幼苗的植株高度、叶片数目和叶面积介于它们之间 ,主根长度与风蚀低地的没有显著差异 ;(3)风蚀低洼地榆树幼苗根、茎、叶各部分生物量都明显地高于生长在其它 3种生境中幼苗的 ,流动沙丘阴坡上榆树幼苗的生物量还明显高于生长在覆沙草地和流沙平地上的 ,生长在覆沙草地和流沙平地的榆树幼苗的生物量基本上没有差异。该结果说明 ,榆树幼苗在风蚀低地生长最好 ,其次是在流动沙丘阴坡 ,这两种生境可能是浑善达克沙地榆树更新的主要地方。  相似文献
9.
王传华  魏斌  李俊清 《生态学报》2009,29(9):4681-4692
长江中下游低山丘陵地区是一个植被曾经受到破坏的生态脆弱区,枫香林和马尾松枫香林是该地区的重要植被类型,对于维持该地区的生态安全具有重要意义.对地处鄂东南低山丘陵地区的枫香林和马尾松枫香林的群落结构及其主要乔木的实生更新进行了研究,结果表明:(1)该地区枫香林和马尾松枫香林群落的乔木和灌木层物种组成存在差异;(2)枫香林中的枫香种群不能实现持续地实生更新;马尾松枫香林的马尾松是一个年龄为25~30a的同生群,而枫香则为一个增长种群;(3)对马尾松、枫香、化香、合欢4种主要乔木实生幼苗的种间关联、生长发育规律、空间分布格局的分析表明:①在4种幼苗形成的6个种对中,只有马尾松和化香间呈显著的负关联(p≤0.01),其它种对间不存在明确的关联关系.②马尾松、枫香、化香、合欢的幼苗均呈聚集分布,其中枫香幼苗在高生长过程中趋向于随机分布.③ 4种幼苗的高生长速率表现出不同的规律,其中马尾松和枫香呈"J"型加速增长;化香和合欢幼苗的高生长速率分别在d、e级幼苗出现拐点,其幼苗高生长为"S"型增长\.该地区的植被演替呈现枫香为主的落叶阔叶树种取代马尾松的趋势,但是枫香林的演替趋势还有待进一步研究.  相似文献
10.
We investigated whether the timing of high light availability as sun patches within forest gaps, independent of total or peak photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), influences the physiology and growth of four coexisting birch species (Betula alleghaniensis, B. lenta, B. papyrifera, and B. populifolia). Birch seedlings were grown for two years along either the east or west sides of experimental gap structures and at two moisture levels. Seedlings positioned in the west received sun patches earlier in the day than those in the east, and environmental conditions for carbon gain were generally more favorable during the earlier sunpatches in the west; air and leaf temperatures were lower, and relative humidity higher, relative to conditions during sun patches in the cats, simulating patterns observed in natural forest gaps. Seedlings positioned along the west edges of gaps fixed more carbon earlier in the day than those in the east, and in many cases, peak net photosynthetic rates were greater for west positioned seedlings. In year two, leaf-level integrated daily carbon gain was greater for west- than eastpositioned plants, and for the most pioneer species, B. populifolia, differences between west and east seedlings were greatest at lower soil moisture levels. Despite some small effects on leaf gas exchange, the timing of high light availability, and its temporal congruence with other factors critical to carbon gain, had no significant effects on first or second year seedling biomass. The responses of birch seedlings to controlled variations in the timing of high light availability were generally much smaller than birch seedling responses to variations in other components of daily light regimes such as total integrated and peak PPF.  相似文献
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