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The genus Phora (Diptera, Phoridae) includes more than 50 species widely distributed in temperate regions of Eurasia and Africa. Taxonomic identification of most species is based upon the morphology of the male hypopygium: hence for many species, including the type species of the genus, females are unknown. We used mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA sequences to match males with previously unidentified females from Phora atra , P. stictica , and P. holosericea . We then identified morphological characters that allow identification of females of P. atra and P. stictica without recourse to DNA sequencing. Our results show that small scale sequencing can aid in the development of taxonomic characters for use in the field to identify previously cryptic females. This iterative method of identifying populations genetically followed by re-examination of morphology should allow development of better keys for rapid identification of heretofore cryptic populations of insects. We also found that sequences from individual of P. holosericea from Cambridge, England and Malakhovka, Russia, were more similar to each other than to sequences from a conspecific fly also collected in Cambridge. This result suggests that there is previously un-suspected population structuring in this species.  © 2002 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society , 2002, 77 , 267–273.  相似文献
2.
A key to males of the Australasian and Oriental species of Dohrniphora is provided. Twenty-five new species are described and two new synonyms proposed.  相似文献
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A new genus is described for a new species, Obscuriphora sheppardi , collected in Warwickshire, England. The genus shows some resemblance to Plethysmochaeta Schmitz and Kuenburgia Schmitz. In the British fauna Obscuriphora is most likely to be confused with Conicera Meigen and Gymnoptera Lioy.  相似文献
4.
Since the coining of the term, biodiversity has come to be understood as being more than a synonym for species richness. It also embraces a diversity of lifestyles, so that of two samples with the same number of species one that solely comprises a diversity of herbivores is considered to be less biodiverse than one that includes detritivores, predators, parasitoids, parasites, etc. as well. It seems that Phoridae could be a prime candidate for use in conservation evaluation exercises because the larvae of this family exhibit a greater range of habits than any other family of animals on the planet.  相似文献
5.
Abstract The species richness of the scuttle fly (Diptera: Phoridae) genus Megaselia was estimated by various non‐parametric estimators from EstimateS, Species Prediction And Diversity Estimation (SPADE) and Ws2m, based on material from a Swedish hemiboreal forest area recently affected by major wildfires, Tyresta National Park and Nature Reserve (TNPNR), south of Stockholm. A total of 21 249 individuals were collected in Malaise traps, of which males constituted 16 976 and females 4 273. The analysed dataset represents 37 samples containing 18 549 specimens sorted into 330 species (184 described, 146 are either undescribed or of unsettled taxonomic status). It was not possible to estimate the total species richness using all samples due to heterogeneity caused by inclusion of different communities and temporal incoherencies between samples within and between years. Even with material obtained from a sampling program that was not designed for species richness estimates, it was possible to obtain reliable results when sample heterogeneity was minimized. By dividing the data into community‐specific datasets – for bog, forest and wildfire – it was possible to obtain asymptotic curves for the smaller of the two wildfire datasets. A total estimate of 357–439 (95% CI) was attained by using the smaller wildfire dataset and adding the 85 unique species from the samples not included in the estimation analysis. TNPNR has one of the richest known scuttle fly communities in Europe, consisting of almost 50% of the currently named Megaselia species; 48 of these species are reported as new records for Sweden in this study.  相似文献
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