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广西猫儿山沿海拔梯度的叶蜂多样性   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
游群  聂海燕 《应用生态学报》2007,18(9):2001-2005
在猫儿山自然保护区沿海拔梯度设置7个样地进行叶蜂调查.共采获叶蜂803头,隶属3科58属121种.统计分析表明,异鳞纹眶叶蜂(Claremontia sinobirmana Malaise)和南华平缝叶蜂(Nesoselandria southaWei)为优势种和广布种.不同海拔叶蜂群落的物种丰富度指数、Simpson多样性指数和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数均以中间海拔(1000~1500m)最高,分别为12.293、0.971和3.830;优势度指数则以高海拔最高.聚类分析显示,7个样地的叶蜂物种可以分为高海拔组(>2000m)和其它海拔组(<2000m).相关分析表明,降水量和植被种类是影响叶蜂多样性的主要因素.  相似文献
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Induction of plant allelochemicals is of particular ecological importance for interactions with herbivores that can make use of induced metabolites by incorporating them for their own defence. Induction patterns in white mustard, Sinapis alba, were investigated following herbivory of the turnip sawfly, Athalia rosae, which sequesters plant glucosinolates. Larvae of different age were allowed to feed for 24 h on young leaves of premature, non-flowering plants. Changes in primary and secondary metabolites were recorded in the damaged leaves (local) and in the adjacent leaves and stems (systemic) for several days. Organ- and time-specific patterns were evident. Local responses included increases in glucosinolate concentrations, soluble and insoluble myrosinase activity and glucose levels, while systemic responses in leaves were restricted to increases in myrosinase activities and glucose. All effects were strongest immediately after feeding and declined mostly within a day. Stems had overall lower constitutive levels of glucosinolates and myrosinase activities than leaves. Feeding by one large larva had a greater impact on the plant's physiology than feeding by three small ones, even though both treatments resulted in quantitatively similar leaf destruction. Local increase in glucosinolate concentration could be beneficial for larvae, while conspecifics feeding on induced adjacent leaves might be negatively affected due to higher myrosinase activity levels. The results are discussed in the context of the ‘optimal defence theory’ and the ‘lethal plant defence paradox’.  相似文献
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Abstract. 1. Ants (Myrmica spp. and Formica lemani) visiting the extrafloral nectaries of bracken, Pteridium aquilinum, imposed heavy mortality on caterpillars of a novel moth species experimentally introduced onto bracken fronds. However, the exclusion of ants from bracken fronds had no significant effect on adapted bracken-feeding herbivores in Britain.
2. The feeding stages of British bracken-feeding insects are immune to, or can largely avoid, predation by ants in a variety of ways. Gall formers and miners cannot be attacked by these ants. Two other species hide, one inside tied leaves, the other in a mass of 'spittle'. Another group of species jumps away from, or falls off the plant when touched by ants. Sawfly caterpillars in the genera Strongylogaster, Aneugmenus and Tenthredo have viscous, distasteful haemolymph that repels ants.
3. No species of bracken herbivore has an absolute temporal refuge from ants; during their development they all overlap with ants to some degree.
4. Ant predation appears to have played a significant role in determining the contemporary structure of British bracken-feeding insect communities. Distasteful haemolymph in sawfly caterpillars may have evolved in response to selection from ant predation. Other species may fortuitously possess characteristics, evolved in response to a variety of selective forces, that also reduce the impact of ants; without such characteristics, however, we postulate that they would be unable to live on this plant. An absence of external, foliage feeding Lepidoptera early in the spring, a high proportion of sawfly species, and a high proportion of gall-formers and miners may all be characteristics of the bracken herbivore community which have been influenced by ant predation.  相似文献
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Abstract. 1. We tested the hypothesis that survival and sources of mortality of the leaf-folding sawfly ( Phyllocolpa sp.) varied significantly among host plants of the arroyo willow ( Salix lasiolepis Bent ham).
2. Survival of the leaf folder differed among field and potted willows in a common environment in two of three cases, and sources of mortality differed among plants in four of five cases.
3. Egg mortality differed among field plants but not among the potted willow plants.
4. Larval mortality and parasitism differed among field and potted willows in 2 years, and appeared to be compensatory mortality sources.
5. Leaf folder density among plants was not generally correlated with percentage of leaf folds with no egg (galls formed but no subsequent oviposition), percentage survival, or percentage mortality, indicating a general lack of density dependence.
6. The proportion of folds with no egg oviposited differed significantly among field and potted plants, and was only correlated with survival or sources of mortality in one of three years.
7. The data support the hypothesis that host plant genotype affects the interaction of the leaf folder with its natural enemies, and thus represents a three trophic level interaction.  相似文献
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Abstract.  1. Cottonwood ( Populus spp.) are the dominant tree type in riparian forests of the western U.S.A. In these riparian forests, the beaver ( Castor canadensis ) is a major ecosystem engineer that commonly browses cottonwood, resulting in distinct changes to plant architecture. Here the hypothesis that beaver herbivory indirectly affects the distribution of a keystone leaf-galling sawfly through architectural changes in cottonwood was examined.
2. It was found that: (a) beaver herbivory of cottonwood results in an increase in average shoot length over unbrowsed cottonwood; (b) sawfly galls were up to 7–14 times more abundant on browsed cottonwood than unbrowsed cottonwood; and (c) sawfly gall abundance was correlated positively with changes in shoot length after beaver herbivory. Together these data show that the individual and combined effects of cottonwood and beaver herbivory increase shoot length, positively affecting sawfly abundance.
3. Because herbivores are a ubiquitous component of most ecosystems, we argue that the indirect effects of herbivory on plant quality, and subsequently other herbivores, may be as important as environmental variation.  相似文献
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Abstract. 1. The relationship between cyanogenesis in bracken fern and the insect fauna feeding on the plant was investigated over a 3 year period. The most common insects between May and July, while cyanide levels were high, were the sawflies Strongylogaster impressata Provancher, S.multicincta Norton, Aneug-menus fzavipes (Norton), the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas) and a microlepidopteran species of Monochroa .
2. Collections of insects from cyanogenic and acyanogenic fronds showed significantly fewer sawflies on the cyanogenic fronds. The aphid and the microlepidopteran were randomly distributed with respect to cyanogenicity.
3. Feeding tests for two of the sawfly species ( Simpressata and Smulticincta ) showed that larvae grew more slowly and had a higher mortality when raised on cyanogenic fronds than on acyanogenic ones.
4. Field collected cyanogenic bracken fronds were found to have sustained less damage from chewing herbivores compared with acyanogenic fronds.  相似文献
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